X-ray Methods for the Analysis of Solutions
X-ray methods for the analysis of solutions have certain advantages and disadvantages. Solutions are homogeneous and lend themselves to concentration, alteration of matrix, and chemical separations. Effects of interelement effects, mass density, and depth of x-ray penetration are greater than with most solids. Sample presentation, bubble formation, and chemical reaction induced by x-ray radiation contribute to the difficulties encountered. Sample preparation techniques and x-ray radiation measurement techniques can be used to reduce or remove the difficulties. Techniques examined are: dilution, addition of an absorbing substance, internal standardization, standard addition, and x-ray radiation-intensity ratios.
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