X-ray Methods for the Analysis of Solutions

  • Thomas J. Cullen
Part of the Developments in Applied Spectroscopy book series (DAIS, volume 8)


X-ray methods for the analysis of solutions have certain advantages and disadvantages. Solutions are homogeneous and lend themselves to concentration, alteration of matrix, and chemical separations. Effects of interelement effects, mass density, and depth of x-ray penetration are greater than with most solids. Sample presentation, bubble formation, and chemical reaction induced by x-ray radiation contribute to the difficulties encountered. Sample preparation techniques and x-ray radiation measurement techniques can be used to reduce or remove the difficulties. Techniques examined are: dilution, addition of an absorbing substance, internal standardization, standard addition, and x-ray radiation-intensity ratios.


Bubble Formation Ratio Method Incoherent Scattering Copper Solution Gold Cyanide 
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Copyright information

© Chicago Section of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas J. Cullen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Hooker Chemical Co.Sel-Rex Corp.NutleyUSA

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