The Use of Mössbauer Spectroscopy on the Lanthanide Elements and Their Compounds
Useful Mössbauer spectroscopy has been developed in all the lanthanides from samarium to ytterbium except for holmium. Small quadrupole coupling and the complicated fine structure have hampered investigation of many of these elements, but the case of observing magnetic hyperfine splitting has made the investigation of a variety of magnetic phenomena quite feasible. Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and paramagnetic phenomena have been studied in dysprosium and samarium. Paramagnetic relaxation has been studied in DyFeO3 and Dy2O3. A magnetic structure was found in thulium metal incommensurate with the crystal structure. A “pseudoquadrupole shift” due to small separation of the lowest electronic states is found in thulium compounds. The effects of high pressure and the nature of chelates on both absorption efficiency and isomer shift has been studied in europium compounds. The problem of line broadening observed in most work with the lanthanides has been studied in the author’s laboratory. Progress toward more nearly monochromatic sources will be discussed.
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