Damage to DNA Caused by Hydrolysis

  • Robert Shapiro
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 40)


The covalent structure of DNA is unstable in aqueous solution. It tends to hydrolyze to its monomeric components, and they themselves are subject to various hydrolytic reactions. These processes are slow, when compared to most familiar chemical reactions. However, a reaction that is slow by these standards may still have great biological significance, if it occurs within the genetic material of an organism. A single base transformation within a DNA molecule may be sufficient to cause a mutation, or inactivate the DNA. Consider a reaction, for example, with a rate constant of 10−10 sec−1 at pH 7.4, 37°; it will have a half life of 220 years. Assume that, within a DNA, it affects two of the four bases. It will take place once every three hours per million base pairs of DNA, and thus be a significant source of damage.


Vacant Site Plateau Area Chain Breakage Deamination Reaction Apurinic Site 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

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