Selected Recent Studies of Exercise, Energy Metabolism, Body Weight, and Blood Lipids Relevant to Interpretation and Design of Studies of Exercise and Cancer
The elucidation of the relationship between intake of calories, particularly from fat, and tumorigenesis in humans or animal models requires investigation of the other side of the energy equation, namely utilization of calories. The intake and utilization of dietary energy sources are governed by many exogenous and endogenous factors, any one or any grouping of which might influence cancer induction and development. Review of the chapters on metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and energy and of the metabolic charts provided in a recent textbook1 gives a well-balanced picture of the myriad aspects to be considered. Asking questions about the interactions between energy supply and utilization in exercise adds further complexity, as may be discerned from reading the literature on exercise and plasma lipids in humans. Moving from studies in human subjects to studies in animal models, which must be done to develop definitive data on many aspects of carcinogenesis, imposes a further layer of uncertainty and a clear need to standardize methods and to model as closely as possible human experience and responses.
KeywordsEndurance Exercise Rest Metabolic Rate Daily Energy Expenditure Habitual Exercise Caloric Balance
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