Advertisement

Dietary Fat, Calories, and Mammary Gland Tumorigenesis

  • Clifford W. Welsch
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 322)

Abstract

In experimental animals (mice and rats), altering the levels and/or types of dietary fat markedly influences the development of mammary tumors. This phenomenon has now been demonstrated in an impressive array of carcinogen-induced,1–106 transplantable,107–121 “spontaneous”122–139 and metastatic140–150 experimental rodent mammary tumor systems. The purpose of this communication is to review and critique the relationships between dietary fat and mammary gland tumorigenesis in rodents. In particular, five issues are examined and critiqued, i.e., 1) amount of fat and rodent mammary tumorigenesis, 2) type of fat and rodent mammary tumorigenesis, 3) fat and rodent mammary tumor cell metastasis, 4) the fatcalorie-rodent mammary tumorigenesis relationship, and 5) influence of fat on development of human breast carcinoma transplants in immune-deficient mice. Although the amount and/or type of dietary fat have been reported to influence the development and/or growth of the normal and/or pre-neoplastic rodent mammary gland,84, 07,138,151–156 these relationships, albeit important, will not be discussed in this chapter. Specific mechanisms by which dietary fat influences mammary gland tumorigenesis in rodents have been discussed in previous reviews157–162 and will not be a major focus of this communication. All amounts of dietary fat cited in this review are expressed as percent by weight. The terms “mammary tumor development” or “mammary tumorigenesis” denote mammary tumor growth, incidence, number, and/or multiplicity.

Keywords

Mammary Tumor Caloric Restriction Natl Cancer Inst Beef Tallow Mammary Carcinogenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    S.H. Abou-El-Ela, K.W. Prasse, R. Carroll, and O.R. Bunce, Effects of dietary primrose oil on mammary tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, Lipids. 22: 1041 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.H. Abou-El-Ela, K.W. Prasse, R. Carroll, A.E. Wade, S. Dharwadkar, and O.R. Bunce, Eicosanoid synthesis in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley rats fed primrose, menhaden or corn oil diets, Lipids. 23: 948 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.H. Abou-El-Ela, K.W. Prasse, B.L. Farrell, R.W. Carroll, A.E. Wade, and O.R. Bunce, Effects of D,L-2-difluoromethylornthine and indomethacin on mammary tumor promotion in rats fed high n-3 and/or n-6 fat diets, Cancer Res. 49: 1434 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Askoy, M.R. Berger, and D. Schmahl, The influence of different levels of dietary fat on the incidence and growth of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in rats, Nutr Cancer. 9: 227 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.F. Aylsworth, M.E. Cullum, M.H. Zile, and C.W. Welsch, Influence of dietary retinyl acetate on normal rat mammary gland development and on the enhancement of 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis by high levels of dietary fat, J Natl Cancer Inst. 76: 339 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.F. Aylsworth, C. Jone, J.E. Trosko, J. Meites, and C.W. Welsch, Promotion by 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis by high dietary fat in the rat: possible role of intercellular communication, J Natl Cancer Inst. 72: 637 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C.F. Aylsworth, D.A. VanVugt, P.W. Sylvester, and J. Meites, Role of estrogens and prolactin in stimulation of carcinogen-induced mammary tumor development by a high-fat diet, Cancer Res. 44: 2835 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Beth, M.R. Berger, M. Aksoy, and D. Schmahl, Comparison between the effects of dietary fat level and of calorie intake on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats, Int J Cancer. 39: 737 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Beth, M.R. Berger, M. Aksoy, and D. Schmahl, Effect of vitamin A and E supplementation to diets containing two different fat levels on methylnitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats, Br J Cancer. 56: 445 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.A. Boissonneault, C.E. Elson, and M.W. Pariza, Net energy effects of dietary fat on chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in F344 rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 76: 335 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.M. Branden and K.K. Carroll, Dietary polyunsaturated fat in relation to mammary carcinogenesis in rats, Lipids. 21: 285 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Cameron, J. Bland, and R. Marcuson, Divergent effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on mammary tumor development in C3H/Heston mice treated with DMBA, Nutr Res. 9: 383 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.K. Carroll, and L.M. Braden, Dietary fat and mammary carcinogenesis, Nutr Cancer. 6: 254 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.K. Carroll, and H.T. Khor, Effects of dietary fat and dose level of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene on mammary tumor incidence in rats, Cancer Res. 30: 2260 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K.K. Carroll, and H.T. Khor, Effects of level and type of dietary fat on incidence of mammary tumors induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, Lipids. 6: 415 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.A. Carter, R.J. Milholland, W. Shea, and M.M. Ip, Effect of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats fed different levels of fat, Cancer Res. 43: 3559 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.T. Cave, J.T. Dunn, and R.M. MacLeod, Effects of iodine deficiency and high-fat diet on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary cancers in rats, Cancer Res. 39: 729 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.T. Cave, and M.J. Erickson-Lucas, Effects of dietary lipids on lactogenic hormone receptor binding in rat mammary tumors, J Natl Cancer Inst. 68: 319 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    W.T. Cave, and J.J. Jurkowski, Dietary lipid effects on the growth, membrane composition, and prolactin-binding capacity of rat mammary tumors, J Natl Cancer Inst. 73: 185 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P.C. Chan, and L.A. Cohen, Effect of dietary fat, antiestrogen, and antiprolactin on the development of mammary tumors in rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 52: 25 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P.C. Chan, and T.L. Dao, Effects of dietary fat on age-dependent sensitivity to mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Letters. 18: 245 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P.C. Chan, and T.L. Dao, Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis by a high-fat diet in Fischer, Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats, Cancer Res. 41: 164 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P.C. Chan, K.A. Ferguson, and T.L. Dao, Effects of different dietary fats on mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 43: 1079 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.C. Chan, J.F. Head, L.A. Cohen, and E.L. Wynder, Influence of dietary fat on the induction of mammary tumors by N-nitrosomethylurea: associated hormone changes and differences between Sprague-Dawley and F344 rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 59: 1279 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.K. Clinton, J.M. Alster, P.B. Imrey, S. Nandkumar, C.R. Truex, and W.J. Visek, Effects of dietary protein, fat and energy intake during an intitiation phase study of 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene-induced breast cancer in rats, J Nutr. 116: 2290 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.K. Clinton, P.B. Imrey, J.M. Alster, J. Simon, C.R. Truex, and W.J. Visek, The combined effects of dietary protein and fat on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced breast cancer in rats, J Nutr. 114: 1213 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.K. Clinton, A.L. Mulloy, and W.J. Visek, Effects of dietary lipid saturation on prolactin secretion, carcinogen metabolism and mammary carcinogenesis in rats, J Nutr. 114: 1630 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    L.A. Cohen, and P.C. Chan, Dietary cholesterol and experimental mammary cancer development, Nutr Cancer. 4: 99 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L.A. Cohen, P.C. Chan, and E.L. Wynder, The role of a high-fat diet in enhancing the development of mammary tumors in ovariectomized rats, Cancer. 47: 66 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    L.A. Cohen, K. Choi, and C.X. Wang, Influence of dietary fat, caloric restriction and voluntary exercise on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats, Cancer Res. 48: 4276 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L.A. Cohen, K. Choi, J.H. Weisburger, and D.P. Rose, Effect of varying proportions of dietary fat on the development of N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat mammary tumors, Anticancer Res. 6: 215 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L.A. Cohen and D.O. Thompson, The influence of dietary medium chain triglycerides on rat mammary tumor development, Lipids. 22: 455 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L.A. Cohen, D.O. Thompson, K. Choi, R.A. Karmali, and D.P. Rose, Dietary fat and mammary cancer. II. Modulation of serum and tumor lipid composition and tumor prostaglandins by different dietary fats: association with tumor incidence patterns, J Natl Cancer Inst. 77: 43 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L.A. Cohen, D.O. Thompson, Y. Maeura, K. Choi, M.E. Blank, and D.P. Rose, Dietary fat and mammary cancer. I. Promoting effects of different dietary fats on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis, J Natl Cancer Inst. 77: 33 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L.A. Cohen, D.O. Thompson, Y. Maeura, and J.H. Weisburger, Influence of dietary medium-chain triglycerides on the development of N-methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumors, Cancer Res. 44: 5023 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    T.L. Dao and P.C. Chan, Effect of duration of high fat intake on enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis in rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 71: 201 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    T.L. Dao and P.C. Chan, Hormones and dietary fat as promoters in mammary carcinogenesis, Environ Health Perspect. 50: 219 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.B. Davidson and K.K. Carroll, Inhibitory effect of a fat-free diet on mammary carcinogenesis in rats, Nutr Cancer. 3: 207 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. Dayton, S. Hashimoto, and J. Woilman, Effect of high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower oils on mammary tumors induced in rats by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, J Nutr. 107: 1353 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    W.F. Dunning, M.R. Curtis, and M.E. Maun, The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on diethylstilbestrol-induced mammary cancer in rats, Cancer Res. 9: 354 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    H.F. Gabriel, M.F. Melhem, and K.N. Rao, Enhancement of DMBA-induced mammary cancer in Wister rats by unsaturated fat and cholestyramine, In Vivo, 1: 303 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    E.B. Gammal, K.K. Carroll, and E.R. Plunkett, Effects of dietary fat on mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, Cancer Res. 27: 1734 (1967).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    N.A. Habib, C.B. Wood, K. Apostolov, W. Barker, M.J. Hershman, M. Aslam, D. Heinemann, B. Fermor, R.C.N. Williamson, W.E. Jenkins, J.R.W. Masters, and M.J. Embleton, Stearic acid and carcinogenesis, Br J Cancer. 56: 455 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Hill, P. Chan, L. Cohen, E. Wynder, and K. Kuno, Diet and endocrine-related cancer, Cancer. 39: 1820 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    G.J. Hopkins and K.K. Carroll, Relationship between amount and type of dietary fat in promotion of mammary carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, J Natl Cancer Inst. 62: 1009 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.G. Hopkins, G.C. Hard, and C.E. West, Carcinogenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene in C3H-A’ ’ fB mice: influence of different dietary fats. J Natl Cancer Inst. 60: 849 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G.J. Hopkins, T.G. Kennedy, and K.K. Carroll, Polyunsaturated fatty acids as promoters of mammary carcinogenesis induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, J Natl Cancer Inst. 66: 517 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G.J. Hopkins, C.E. West, and G.C. Hard, Effect of dietary fats on the incidence of 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene-induced tumors in rats, Lipids. 11: 328 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    J.E. Hunter, C. Ip, and E.J. Hollenbach, Isomeric fatty acids and tumorigenesis: a commentary on recent work, Nutr Cancer. 7: 199 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    C. Ip, Ability of dietary fat to overcome the resistance of mature rats to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis, Cancer Res. 40: 2785 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    C. Ip, Dietary vitamin E intake and mammary carcinogenesis in rats, Carcinogenesis. 3: 1453 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    C. Ip, Factors influencing the anticarcinogenic efficacy of selenium in dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats, Cancer Res. 41: 2683 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. Ip, Modification of mammary carcinogenesis and tissue peroxidation by selenium deficiency and dietary fat, Nutr Cancer. 2: 136 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. Ip, Quantitative assessment of fat and calories as risk factors in mammary carcinogenesis in an experimental model, Prog Clin Biol Res. 346: 107 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. Ip, C.A. Carter, and M.M. Ip, Requirement of essential fatty acid for mammary tumori-genesis in the rat, Cancer Res. 45: 1997 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. Ip and M.M. Ip, Inhibition of mammary tumorigenesis by a reduction of fat intake after carcinogen treatment in young versus adult rats, Cancer Letters. 11: 35 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    C. Ip and M.M. Ip, Serum estrogens and estrogen responsiveness in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene as influenced by dietary fat, J Natl Cancer Inst. 66: 291 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    C. Ip and D. Sinha, Anticarcinogenic effect of selenium in rats treated with dimethylbenzanthracene and fed different levels and type of fat, Carcinogenesis. 2: 435 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    C. Ip and D. Sinha, Enhancement of mammary tumorigenesis by dietary selenium deficiency in rats with a high polyunsaturated fat intake, Cancer Res. 41: 31 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    C. Ip and D. Sinha, Neoplastic growth of carcinogen-treated mammary transplants as influenced by fat intake of donor and host, Cancer Letters. 11: 277 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Ip and G. White, BCG-modulated mammary carcinogenesis is dependent on the schedule of immunization but is not affected by dietary fat, Cancer Letters. 31: 87 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    C. Ip, P. Yip, and L.L. Bemardis, Role of prolactin in the promotion of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors by dietary fat, Cancer Res. 40: 374 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    E.A. Jacobson, K.A. James, J.V. Frei, and K.K. Carroll, Effects of dietary fat on long-term growth and mammary tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats given a low dose of DMBA, Nutr Cancer. 11: 221 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    J.J. Jurkowski and W.T. Cave, Dietary effects of Menhaden oil on the growth and membrane lipid composition of rat mammary tumors, J Natl Cancer Inst. 74: 1145 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    R. Kalamegham and K.K. Carroll, Reversal of the promotional effect of high-fat diet on mammary tumorigenesis by subsequent lowering of dietary fat, Nutr Cancer. 6: 22 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Y. Katsuda, Effect of semisynthetic diets containing various amounts of corn oil upon development of DMBA-induced mammary cancer, J Kansai Med Univ. 33: 360 (1981).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.M. King, D.M. Bailey, D.D. Gibson, J.V. Pitha, and P.B. McCay, Incidence and growth of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene as related to the dietary content of fat and antioxidant, Cancer Res. 63: 657 (1979).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    M.M. King and P.B. McCay, Modulation of tumor incidence and possible mechanisms of inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis by dietary antioxidants, Cancer Res. 43: 2485s (1983).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    D.M. Klurfeld, M.M. Weber, and D. Kritchevsky, Inhibition of chemically induced mammary and colon tumor promotion by caloric restriction in rats fed increased dietary fat, Cancer Res, 47: 2759 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    D.M. Klurfeld, C.B. Welch, M.J. Davis, and D. Kritchevsky, Determination of degree of energy restriction necessary to reduce DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesius in rats during the promotion phase, J Nutr. 119: 286 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    D.M. Klurfeld, C.B. Welch, L.M. Lloyd, and D. Kritchevsky, Inhibition of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis by caloric restriction in rats fed high-fat diets, Int J Cancer. 43: 922 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G.M. Kollmorgen, M.M. King, A.A. Lehman, G. Fischer, R.E. Longley, B.J. Daggs, and W.A. Sansing, The methanol extraction residue of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin protects against 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat mammary carcinoma, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 162: 410 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    G.M. Kollmorgen, M.M. King, J.F. Roszel, B.J. Daggs, and R.E. Longley, The influence of dietary fat and non-specific immunotherapy on carcinogen-induced rat mammary adenocarcinoma, Vet Pathol. 18: 82 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    G.M. Kollmorgen, W.A. Sansing, A.A. Lehman, G. Fischer, R.E. Longley, S.S. Alexander, M.M. King, and P.B. McKay, Inhibition of lymphocyte function in rats fed high-fat diets, Cancer Res. 39: 3458 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. Kritchevsky, M.M. Weber, and D.M. Klurfeld, Dietary fat versus caloric content in initiation and promotion of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats, Cancer Res. 44: 3174 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. Kritchevsky, C.B. Welch, and D.M. Klurfeld, Response of mammary tumors to caloric restriction for different time periods during the promotion phase, Nutr Cancer. 12: 259 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    H.W. Lane, J.S. Butel, C. Howard, F. Shepherd, R. Halligan, and D. Medina, The role of high levels of dietary fat in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis: lack of an effect on lipid peroxidation, Carcinogenesis. 6: 403 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    J.B. Lasekan, M.K. Clayton, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and D.M. Ney, Dietary olive oil and safflower oils in promotion of DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats, Nutr Cancer. 13: 153 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    S.Y. Lee and A.E. Rogers, Dimethylbenzanthracene mammary tumorigenesis in SpragueDawley rats fed diets differing in content of beef tallow or rapeseed oil, Nutr Res. 3: 361 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    F.C. Leung, C.F. Aylsworth, and J. Meites, Counteraction of underfeeding-induced inhibition of mammary tumor growth in rats by prolactin and estrogen administration, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 173: 159 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    P.B. McCay, M.M. King, and J.V. Pitha, Evidence that the effectiveness of antioxidants as inhibitors of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors is a function of dietary fat composition, Cancer Res. 41: 3745 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    C. Moore and P.W. Tittle, Muscle activity, body fat, and induced rat mammary tumors, Surgery. 73: 329 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    N. Oyaizu, S. Morii, K. Saito, Y. Katsuda, and J. Matsumoto, Mechanism of growth enhancement of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors in rats given high polyunsaturated fat diet, Jpn J Cancer Res. 76: 676 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    A.E. Rogers, Influence of dietary content of lipids and lipotropic nutrients on chemical carcinogenesis in rats, Cancer Res. 43: 2477s (1983).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    A.E. Rogers, B. Conner, C. Boulanger, and S. Lee, Mammary tumorigenesis in rats fed diets high in lard, Lipids. 21: 275 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A.E. Rogers and W.C. Wetsel, Mammary carcinogenesis in rats fed different amounts and types of fat, Cancer Res. 41: 3735 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    B.A. Ruggeri, D.M. Klurfeld, and D. Kritchevsky, Biochemical alterations in 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors from rats subjected to caloric restriction, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 929: 239 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    B.A. Ruggeri, D.M. Klurfeld, D. Kritchevsky, and R.W. Furlanetto, Caloric restruction and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumor growth in rats: alterations in circulating insulin, insulin-like growth factors I and II and epidermal growth factor, Cancer Res. 49: 4130 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    B.A. Ruggeri, D.M. Klurfeld, D. Kritchevsky, ansd R.W. Furlanetto, Growth factor binding to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumors from rats subject to chronic caloric restriction, Cancer Res. 49: 4135 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S.L. Selenskas, M.M. Ip, and C. Ip, Similarity between trans fat and saturated fat in the modification of rat mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 44: 1321 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    J. Silverman, C.J. Shellabarger, S. Holtzman, J.P. Stone, and J.H. Weisburger, Effect of dietary fat on x-ray-induced mammary cancer in Sprague-Dawley rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 64: 631 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    D.K. Sinha, R.L.Gebhard, and J.E. Pazik, Inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in rats by dietary restriction, Cancer Letters. 40: 133 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    H. Sugihara, Suppression of growth of DMBA-induced mammary cancers in female rats fed on coconut oil diets, J Kansai Med Univ. 26: 72 (1974).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    K. Sundram, H.T. Khor, A.S.H. Ong, and R. Pathmanathan, Effect of dietary palm oils on mammary carcinogenesis in female rats induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, Cancer Res. 49: 1447 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    P.W. Sylvester, C.F. Aylsworth, and J. Meites, Relationship of hormones to inhibition of mammary tumor development by underfeeding during the “critical period” after carcinogen administration, Cancer Res. 41: 1384 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    P.W. Sylvester, C.F. Aylsworth, D.A. VanVugt, and J. Meites, Influence of underfeeding during the “critical period” or thereafter on carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats, Cancer Res. 42: 4943 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    P.W. Sylvester, C. Ip, and M.M. Ip, Effects of high dietary fat on the growth and development of ovarian-independent carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats, Cancer Res. 46: 763 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    P.W. Sylvester, M. Russell, M.M. Ip, and C. Ip, Comparative effects of different animal and vegetable fats fed before and during carcinogen administration on mammary tumorigenesis, sexual maturation and endocrine functions in rats, Cancer Res. 46: 757 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    H.J. Thompson, D. Meeker, A.R. Tagliaferro, and J.S. Roberts, Effect of energy intake on the promotion of mammary carcinogenesis by dietary fat, Nutr Cancer. 7: 37 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    H.J. Thompson, A.M. Ronan, K.A. Ritacco, and A.R. Tagliaferro, Effect of type and amount of dietary fat on the enhancement of rat mammary tumorigenesis by exercise, Cancer Res. 49: 1904 (1989)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    H.J. Thompson, A.M. Ronan, K.A. Ritacco, A.R. Tagliaferro, and L.D. Meeker, Effect of exercise on the induction of mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 48: 2720 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    D.A. Wagner, P.H. Naylor, U. Kim, W. Shea, C. Ip, and M.M. Ip, Ineraction of dietary fat and the thymus in the induction of mammary tumors by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, Cancer Res. 2: 1266 (1982).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    M. Watanabe and M. Sugano, Effects of dietary cis-and trans-monoene fats on 7,12dimethylbenzanthracene-induced rat mammary tumors, Nutr Rept Internati. 33: 163 (1986).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    C.W. Welsch and J.V. DeHoog, Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat, Cancer Res. 48: 2074 (1988).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    C.W. Welsch, J.L. House, B.L. Herr, S.J. Eliasberg, and M.A. Welsch, Enhancement of mammary carcinogenesis by high levels of dietary fat: a phenomenon dependent on ad libitum feeding, J Natl Cancer Inst. 82: 1615 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    W.C. Wetsel, A.E. Rogers, and P.M. Newberne, Dietary fat and DMBA mammary carcinogenesis in rats, Cancer Det and Prevent. 4: 535 (1981).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    S. Abraham, L.J. Faulkin, L.A. Hillyard, and D.J. Mitchell, Effect of dietary fat on tumori-genesis in the mouse mammary gland, J Natl Cancer Inst. 72: 1421 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    S. Abraham and L.A. Hillyard, Effect of dietary 18-carbon fatty acids on growth of transplantable mammary adenocarcinomas in mice, J Natl Cancer Inst. 71: 601 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    K.L. Erickson and I.K. Thomas, The role of dietary fat in mammary tumorigenesis, Food Technol. 39: 69 (1985).Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    H. Gabor and S. Abraham, Effect of dietary Menhaden oil on tumor cell loss and the accumulation of mass of a transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice, J Natl Cancer Inst. 76: 1223 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    H. Gabor, L.A. Hillyard, and S. Abraham, Effect of dietary fat on growth kinetics of transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice, J Natl Cancer Inst. 74: 1299 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    T. Ghayur and D.F. Horrobin, Effects of essential fatty acids in the form of evening primrose oil on the growth of the rat R3230AC transplantable mammary tumour, IRCS Med Sci. 9: 582 (1981).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. Giovarelli, E. Padula, G. Ugazio, G. Forni, and G. Cavallo, Strain-and sex-linked effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on tumor growth and immune functions in mice, Cancer Res. 40: 3745 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    L.A. Hillyard and S. Abraham, Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth of mammary adenocarcinomas in mice and rats, Cancer Res. 39: 4430 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    G.J. Hopkins and C.E. West, Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fat on the growth of a transplantable adenocarcinoma in C3HA“y fB mice, J Natl Cancer Inst. 58: 753 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    R.A. Karmali, J. Marsh, and C. Fuchs, Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on growth of a rat mammary tumor, J Natl Cancer Inst. 73: 457 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    R.A. Karmali, J. Marsh, and C. Fuchs, Effects of dietary enrichment with gamma-linolenic acid upon growth of the R3230AC mammary adenocarcinoma, J Nutr Growth and Cancer. 2: 41 (1985).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    G.M. Kollmorgen, M.M. King, S.D. Kosanke, and C. Do, Influence of dietary fat and indomethacin on the growth of transplantable mammary tumors in rats, Cancer Res. 43: 4714 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    W.J. Kort, I.M. Weijma, A.M. Bijma, W.P. van Schalkwijk, A.J. Vergroesen, and D.L. Westbroek, Omega-3 fatty acids inhibiting the growth of a transplantable rat mammary adenocarcinoma, J Natl Cancer Inst. 79: 593 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    G.A. Rao and S. Abraham, Enhanced growth rate of transplanted mammary adenocarcinoma induced in C3H mice by dietary linoleate, J Natl Cancer Inst. 56: 431 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    G.A. Rao and S. Abraham, Reduced growth rate of transplantable mammary adenocarcinoma in C3H mice fed eicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid, J Natl Cancer Inst. 58: 445 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    A.S. Bennett, Effect of dietary stearic acid on the genesis of spontaneous mammary adenocarcinomas in strain A/ST mice, Int J Cancer. 34: 529 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    J. Benson, M. Lev, and C.G. Grand, Enhancement of mammary fibroadenomas in the female rat by a high fat diet, Cancer Res. 16: 135 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    B. Boeryd and B. Hallgren, The incidence of spontaneous mammary carcinoma in C3H mice is influenced by dietary fat given from weaning and given to mothers during gestation and lactation, Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand Sect A. 94: 237 (1986).Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    R.R. Brown, Effects of dietary fat on incidence of spontaneous and induced cancer in mice, Cancer Res. 41: 3741 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    R.K. Davis, G.T. Stevenson, and K.A. Busch, Tumor incidence in normal Sprague-Dawley female rats, Cancer Res. 16: 194 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    D.S. Gridley, J.D. Kettering, J.M. Slater, and R.L. Nutter, Modification of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice fed different sources of protein, fat and carbohydrate, Cancer Letters. 19: 133 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    D. Harman, Free radical theory of aging: effect of the amount and degree of unsaturation of dietary fat on mortality rate, J. Gerontol 26: 451 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    W.J. Kort, P.E. Zondervan, L.O.M. Hulsman, I.M. Weijma, W.C. Hulsmann, and D.L. Westbroek, Spontaneous tumor incidence of female Brown Norway rats after lifelong diets high and low in linoleic acid, J Natl Cancer Inst. 74: 529 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    L.M. Olson, S.K. Clinton, J.I. Everitt, P.V. Johnston, and W.J. Visek, Lymphocyte activation, cell-mediated cytotoxicity and their relationship to dietary fat-enhanced mammary tumorigenesis in C3H/OUJ mice, J Nutr. 117: 955 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    P. Pennycuik, A. Fogerty, M. Wilcox, M. Ferris, R. Baxter, and A. Johnson, Tumour incidence, growth reproduction and longevity in female C3H mice fed polyunsaturated ruminant-derived foodstuffs, Aust J Biol Sci. 32: 309 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    J. Silverman, J. Powers, P. Stromberg, J.A. Pultz, and S. Kent, Effects on C3H mouse mammary cancer of changing from a high fat to a low fat diet before, at, or after puberty, Cancer Res. 49: 3857 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    H. Silverstone and A. Tannenbaum, The effect of the proportion of dietary fat on the rate of formation of mammary carcinoma in mice, Cancer Res. 10: 488 (1950).Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    A. Tannenbaum, The genesis and growth of tumors. III. Effects of a high fiber diet, Cancer Res. 2: 468 (1942).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    A. Tannenbaum, The dependence of tumor formation on the composition of the calorie-restricted diet as well as on the degree of restriction, Cancer Res. 5: 616 (1945).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    I.J. Tinsley, J.A. Schmitz, and D.A. Pierce, Influence of dietary fatty acids on the incidence of mammary tumors in the C3H mounse, Cancer Res. 41: 1460 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    I.J. Tinsley, G. Wilson, and R.R. Lowry, Tissue fatty acid changes and tumor incidence in C3H mice ingesting cottonseed oil, Lipids. 17: 115 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    B.E. Walker, Tumors in female offspring of control and diethylstilbestrol-exposed mice fed high-fat diets, J Natl Cancer Inst. 82: 50 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    S.H. Waxier, G. Brecher, and S.L. Beal, The effect of fat-enriched diet on the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in obese mice, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 162: 365 (1979).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    E.S. Boylan and L.A. Cohen, The influence of dietary fat on mammary tumor metastasis in the rat, Nutr Cancer. 8: 193 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    C.C. Carrington and H.L. Hosick, Effects of dietary fats on the growth of normal, preneoplastic and neoplastic mammary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, J Cell Sci. 75: 269 (1975).Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    K.L. Erickson, D.S. Schianger, D.A. Adams, D.R. Fregeau, and J.S. Stern, Influence of dietary fatty acid concentration and geometric configuration on murine mammary tumori-genesis and experimental metastases, J Nutr. 114: 1834 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    N.E. Hubbard, R.S. Chapkin, and K.L. Erickson, Inhibition of growth and linoleateenhanced metastasis of a transplantable mouse mammary tumor by indomethacin, Cancer Letters. 43: 111 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    N.E. Hubbard and K.L. Erickson, Enhancement of metastasis from a transplantable mouse mammary tumor by dietary linoleic acid, Cancer Res. 47: 6171 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    E.B. Katz and E.S. Boylan, Effect of the quality of dietary fat on tumor growth and metastasis from a rat mammary adenocarcinoma, Nutr Cancer, 12: 343 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    E.B. Katz and E.S. Boylan, Effects of reciprocal changes of diets differing in fat content on pulmonary metastasis from the 13762 rat mammary tumor, Cancer Res. 49: 2477 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    E.B. Katz and E.S. Boylan, Stimulatory effect of high polyunsaturated fat diet on lung metastasis from the 13762 mammary adenocarcinoma in female retired breeder rats, J Natl Cancer Inst. 79: 351 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    W.J. Kort, I.M. Weijma, T.E.M. Stehmann, A.J. Vergroesen, and D.L. Westbroek, Diets rich in fish oil cannot contract tumor cell metastasis, Ann Nutr Metab. 31: 342 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    W.J. Kort, I.M. Weijma, A.J. Vergroesen, and D.L. Westbroek, Conversion of diets at tumor induction shows the pattern of tumor growth and metastasis of the first given diet, Carcinogenesis. 8: 611 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    E.M. Scholar, L.A.D. Violi, J. Newland, E. Bresnick, and D.F. Birt, The effect of dietary fat on metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma and the Balb/c mammary carcinoma, Nutr Cancer. 12: 109 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    L.J. Faulkin, S. Abraham, D.J. Mitchell, and L.A. Hillyard, Effects of dietary fat on mammary development relative to age and hormones in BALB/c mice, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 181: 575 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    R.A. Knazek, S.C. Liu, J.S. Bodwin, and B.K. Vonderhaar, Requirement of essential fatty acids in the diet for development of the mouse mammary gland, J Natl Cancer Inst. 64: 377 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    M.J. Miyamoto-Tiaven, L.A. Hillyard, and S. Abraham, Influence of dietary fat on the growth of mammary ducts in Balb/c mice, J Natl Cancer Inst. 67: 179 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    C.W. Welsch, J.V. DeHoog, D.H. O’Connor, and L.G. Sheffield, Influence of dietary fat levels on development and hormone responsiveness of the mouse mammay gland, Cancer Res. 45: 6147 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    C.W. Welsch and D.H. O’Connor, Influence of the type of dietary fat on developmental growth of the mammary gland in immature and mature female Balb/c mice, Cancer Res. 49: 5999 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    L. Zhang, R.P. Bird, and W.R. Bruce, Proliferative activity of murine mammary epithelium as affected by dietary fat and calcium, Cancer Res. 47: 4905 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    D. Albanes, Total calories, body weight, and tumor incidence in mice, Cancer Res. 47: 1987 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    L.S. Freedman, C. Clifford, and M. Messina, Analysis of dietary fat, calories, body weight and the development of mammary tumors in rats and mice: a review, Cancer Res. 50: 5710 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    C.W. Welsch, Enhancement of mammary tumorigenesis by dietary fat: review of potential mechanisms, Am J Clin Nutr. 45: 192 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    C.W. Welsch and C.F. Aylsworth, Enhancement of murine mammary tumorigenesis by feeding high levels of dietary fat: a hormonal mechanism?, J Natl Cancer Inst. 70: 215 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    M.W. Pariza, Calorie restriction, ad libitum feeding, and cancer, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 183: 293 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    D. Kritchevsky and D.M. Klurfeld, Caloric effects in experimental mammary tumorigenesis, Am J Clin Nutr. 45: 236 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    C.W. Welsch, Host factors affecting the growth of carcinogen-induced rat mammary carcinomas: a review and tribute to Charles Brenton Huggins, Cancer Res. 45: 3415 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    D.M. Klurfeld and D. Kritchevsky, Serum cholesterol and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthraceneinduced mammary carcinogenesis, Cancer Letters. 14: 273 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    G. Fernandes, E.J. Yunis, and R.A. Good, Suppression of adenocarcinoma by the immunological consequences of caloric restriction, Nature (London). 263: 504 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    R.A. Huesby, Z.B. Ball, and M.B. Visscher, Further observations on the influence of simple caloric restriction on mammary cancer incidence and related phenomenon in C3H mice, Cancer Res. 5: 40 (1945).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    N.H. Sarkar, G. Fernandes, N.T. Telang, I.A. Kourides, and R.A. Good, Low-calorie diet prevents the development of mammary tumors in C3H mice and reduces circulating prolactin levels, murine mammary tumor virus expression, and proliferation of mammary alveolar cells, Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA). 79: 7758 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    R. Shao, T.L. Dao, N.K. Day, and R.A. Good, Dietary manipulation of mammmary tumor development in adult C3H/Bi mice, Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 193: 313 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    A. Tannenbaum, Relationship of body weight to cancer incidence, Arch Path. 30: 509 (1940).Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    A. Tannenbaum, The initiation and growth of tumors: introduction: I. Effects of underfeeding, Am J Cancer. 38: 335 (1940).Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. Tannenbaum, The genesis and growth of tumors. H. Effects of caloric restriction per se, Cancer Res, 2: 460 (1942).Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    A. Tannenbaum, The dependence of tumor formation on degree of caloric restriction, Cancer Res. 5: 609 (1945).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    A. Tannenbaum and H. Silverstone, Failure to inhibit the formation of mammary carcinoma in mice by intermittent fasting, Cancer Res. 10: 577 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    M.J. Tucker, The effect of long-term food restriction on tumours in rodents, Intl J Cancer. 23: 803 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    M.G. Visscher, Z.B. Ball, R.H. Barnes, and I. Silversten, The influence of caloric restriction upon the incidence of spontaneous mammary carcinoma in mice, Surgery (St. Louis) 11: 48 (1942).Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    S.H. Waxier, The effect of weight reduction on the occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice, J Nall Cancer Inst. 14: 1253 (1954).Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    S.H. Waxier, P. Tabar, and L.R. Melcher, Obesity and the time of appearance of spontaneous mammary carcinoma in C3H mice, Cancer Res. 13: 276 (1953).Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    F.R. White, The relationship between underfeeding and tumor formation, transplantation, and growth in rats and mice, Cancer Res. 21: 281 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    F.R. White, J. White, G.B. Midler, M.G. Kelly, W.E. Heston, and P.W. David, Effect of caloric restriction in mammary-tumor formation in strain C3H mice and on the response of strain DBA to painting with methylcholanthrene, J Natl Cancer Inst. 5: 43 (1944).Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    K. Donato and D.M. Hegsted, Efficiency of utilization of various sources of energy for growth, Proc Nall Acad Sci (USA). 82: 4866 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    E.B. Forbes, R.W. Swift, R.F. Elliot, and W.H. James, Relation of fat to economy of food utilization. I. By the mature albino rat, J Nutr. 31: 213 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    R.K. Boutwell, M.K. Brush, and H.P. Rusch, The stimulating effect of dietary fat on carcinogenesis, Cancer Res. 9: 741 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    P.J.H. Jones, Effect of fatty acid composition of dietary fat on energy balance and expenditures in hamsters, Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 67: 994 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    C.C. Parrish, D.A. Pathy, and A. Angel, Dietary fish oils limit adipose tissue hypertrophy in rats, Metabolism. 39: 217 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    R.J. Jandacek, E.J. Hollenbach, B.N. Holcombe, C.M. Kuehlthau, J.C. Peters, and J.D. Taulbee, Reduced storage of dietary eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the weaning rat, J. Nutr Biochem 2: 142 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    J. Meites, J.F. Bruni, D.A. vanVugt, and A.F. Smith, Relation of endogenous opioid peptides and morphine to neuroendocrine functions, Life Sci. 24: 1325 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    P.W. Sylvester, S. Forczek, M.M. Ip, and C. Ip, Exercise training and the differential prolactin response in male and female rats, J Appl Physiol. 67: 804 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    C.W. Welsch and H. Nagasawa, Prolactin and murine mammary tumorigenesis: a review. Cancer Res. 37: 951 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    E.W. Blank and R.L. Ceriani, Fish oil enhancement of 131I-conjugated-anti-human milk fat globule monoclonal antibody experimental radio-immunotherapy of breast cancer, J Steroid Biochem. 34: 149 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    C.E. Borgeson, L. Pardini, R.S. Pardini, and C. Reitz, Effects of dietary fish oil on human mammary carcinoma and on lipid-metabolizing enzymes, Lipids. 24: 290 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    H. Gabor, E.W. Blank, and R.L. Ceriani, Effect of dietary fat and monocolonal antibody therapy on the growth of human mammary adeno-carcinoma MX-1 grafted in athymic mice, Cancer Letters. 52: 173 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    M.J. Gonzalez, R.A. Schemmel, J.I. Gray, L. Dugan, L.G. Sheffield, and C.W. Welsch, Effect of dietary fat on growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 human breast carcinomas in athymic nude mice: relationship between carcinoma growth and lipid peroxidation product levels, Carcinogenesis. 12: 1231 (1991).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    G.A. Pritchard, D.L. Jones, and R.E. Mansel, Lipids in breast cancer, Brit J Surg. 76: 1069 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    B.K. Armstrong and R. Doll, Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices, Int J Cancer. 15: 617 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    G.E. Gray, M.C. Pike, and B.W. Henderson, Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices, Br J Cancer. 39: 1 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    L. Kaiser, N.F. Boyd, V. Kriukov, and D. Tritchler, Fish consumption and breast cancer risk: an ecological study, Nutr Cancer. 12: 61 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    A.B. Miller, A. Kelly, N.W. Choi, V. Matthews, R.W. Morgan, L. Munan, J.D. Burch, J. Feather, G.R. Howe, and M. Jain, A study of diet and breast cancer, Am J Epidemiol. 107: 499 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    R.L. Prentice, M. Pepe, and S.G. Self, Dietary fat and breast cancer: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiological literature and a discussion of methodological issues, Cancer Res. 49: 3147 (1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    A. Schatzkin, P. Greenwald, D.P. Byar, and C.K. Clifford, The dietary fat-breast cancer hypothesis is alive, J Amer Med Assoc. 261: 3284 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    P. Toniolo, E. Riboli, F. Protta, M. Chanel, and A.P.M. Coppa, Calorie-providing nutrients and risk of breast cancer, J Natl Cancer Inst. 81: 278 (1989).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    E.L. Wynder, Identification of women at high risk of breast cancer, Cancer. 24: 1235 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    P.J. Goodwin and N.F. Boyd, Critical appraisal of the evidence that dietary fat intake is related to breast cancer risk in humans, J Natl Cancer Inst. 79: 473 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    S. Graham, J. Marshall, C. Mettlin, T. Rzepka, T. Nemoto, and T. Byers, Diet in the epidemiology of breast cancer, Am J Epidemiol. 116: 68 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    D.Y. Jones, A. Schatzkin, S.B. Green, G. Block, L.A. Milton, R.G. Ziegler, R. Hoover, and P.R. Taylor, Dietary fat and breast cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, J Natl Cancer Inst. 79: 465 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    S.C. Newman, A.B. Miller, and G.R. Howe, A study of the effect of weight and dietary fat on breast cancer survival time, Am J Epidemiol. 123: 767 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    W.C. Willett, M.J. Stampfer, G.A. Colditz, B.A. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, and F.E. Speizer, Dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer, N Engl J Med. 316: 22 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clifford W. Welsch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations