Toward a Transactional Perspective

A Personal Journey
  • Irwin Altman
Part of the Human Behavior and Environment book series (HUBE, volume 11)


I was born on July 16, 1930, in New York City. My parents, Ethel and Louis Altman, were first-generation Americans whose parents emigrated to this country in the late 1800s from the Soviet Union and Hungary, respectively. My wife Gloria and I were married in 1953 and have two children. Gloria was a primary-school teacher for several years but has worked in and managed a large travel agency in Salt Lake City for almost 20 years. Our older son, David, has a PhD in social ecology and is a senior research associate in the Center for Health Promotion, Stanford University. Our younger son, William, has a JD degree and a master’s degree in public policy and works for the American Psychological Association, specializing in legislation and policy in the areas of health and aging.


Psychological Process World View Community Psychology Environmental Designer Personal Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altman, I. (1973). Some perspectives on the study of man-environment phenomena. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 4, 109–126.Google Scholar
  2. Altman, I. (1975). Environment and social behavior: Privacy, personal space, territory and crowding. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole (reprinted by Irvington Press, 1981 ).Google Scholar
  3. Altman, I. (1977). Privacy regulation: Culturally universal or culturally specific? Journal of Social Issues, 3, 79–109.Google Scholar
  4. Altman, I. (1986). A perspective on the study of culture and homes. In D. G. Saile (Ed.), Architecture in cultural change: Essays in built form and culture research (pp. 5–16 ) Lawrence: University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  5. Altman, I. (1987a). Centripetal and centrifugal trends in psychology. American Psychologist, 42, 1058–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altman, I. (1987b). Community psychology twenty years later: Still another crisis in psychology? American Journal of Community Psychology, 15, 613–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altman, I. (1988). Process, transactional/contextual, and outcome research: An alternative to the traditional distinction between basic and applied research. Social Behavior: International Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 259–280.Google Scholar
  8. Altman, I. (1989). Further commentary on the transactional world view. Social Behavior: International Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 4, 57–62.Google Scholar
  9. Altman, I., & Chemers, M. M. (1980). Culture and environment. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole (Reprinted by Cambridge University Press, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  10. Altman, I., & Gauvain, M. (1981). A cross-cultural and dialectic analysis of homes. In L. S. Liben, A. H. Patterson, & N. Newcombe (Eds.), Spatial representation and behavior across the life span. (pp. 283–320 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Altman, I., & Ginat, J. (1989a). Social relationships in polygamous families. Invited address at the Second Iowa Conference on Personal Relationships. Spring. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.Google Scholar
  12. Altman, I., & Ginat, J. (1989b). The ecology of polygamous families. Invited address at the joint meeting of the Rocky Mountain Psychological Association and the Western Psychological Association. Spring. Reno, Nevada.Google Scholar
  13. Altman, I., & Haythom, W. W. (1965). Interpersonal exchange in isolation. Sociometry, 23, 41 1426.Google Scholar
  14. Altman, I., & Haythorn, W. W. (1967). The ecology of isolated groups. Behavioral Science, 12, 169–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Altman, I., & McGinnies, E. M. (1960). Interpersonal perception and communication in discussion groups of varied attitudinal composition. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 390–395.Google Scholar
  16. Altman, I., & Rogoff, B. (1987). World views in psychology: Trait, interactional, organismic, and transactional perspectives. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology. Volume 1 (pp. 1–40 ) New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Altman, I., & Taylor, D. A. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  18. Altman, I., Taylor, D. A., & Wheeler, L. (1971). Ecological aspects of group behavior in isolation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1, 76–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Altman, I., Nelson, P., & Lett, E. E. (1972). The ecology of home environments. Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, Spring.Google Scholar
  20. Altman, I., Vinsel, A., & Brown, B. B. (1981). Dialectic conceptions in social psychology: An application to social penetration and privacy regulation. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. Volume 14 (pp. 107–160 ) New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  21. Altman, I., Werner, C. M., Oxley, D., & Haggard, L. M. (1987). “Christmas Street” as an example of transactionally oriented research. Environment and Behavior, 19, 501–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barker, R. G. (1968). Ecological psychology: Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behavior. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Brown, B. B., & Altman, I. (1983). Territoriality, defensible space and residential burglary: An environmental analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 203–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dewey, J., & Bentley, A. F. (1949). Knowing and the known. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  25. Gauvain, M., Altman, I., & Fahim, H. (1983). Homes and social change: A cross-cultural analysis. In N. R. Feimer & E. S. Geller (Eds.), Environmental psychology: Directions and perspectives (pp. 80–118 ) New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  26. Haythorn, W. W., & Altman, I. (1967). Personality factors in isolated environments. In M. Appley & R. Trumbull (Eds.), Psychological stress (pp. 363–386 ). New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts.Google Scholar
  27. Haythorn, W. W., Altman, I., & Meyers, T. I. (1965). Emotional symptomatology and subjective stress in isolated pairs of men. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 290–306.Google Scholar
  28. Hesse, B. W., Werner, C. M., & Altman, I. (1988). Temporal aspects of computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 4, 147–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McGrath, J. E., & Altman, I. (1966). Small group research: synthesis and critique of the field. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  30. Oxley, D., Haggard, L. M., Werner, C. M., & Altman, I. (1986). Transactional qualities of neighborhood social networks: A case study of “Christmas Street.” Environment and Behavior, 18, 640–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pepper, S. C. (1942). World hypotheses: A study in evidence. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Pepper, S. C. (1967). Concept and quality: A world hypothesis. La Salle, IL: Open Court.Google Scholar
  33. Rychlak, J. (1977). The psychology of rigorous humanism. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Simmel, G. (1950). The sociology of Georg Simmel. Trans. by K. H. Wolff. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  35. Stokols, D., & Altman, I. (Eds.). (1987). Handbook of environmental psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  36. Sundstrom, E., & Altman, I. (1974). Relationships between dominance and territorial behavior: A field study in a youth rehabilitation setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Taylor, D. A., Wheeler, L., & Altman, I. (1968). Stress reactions in socially isolated groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 369–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vinsel, A., Brown, B. B., Altman, I., & Foss, C. (1980). Privacy regulation, territorial displays, and effectiveness of individual functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1104–1115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Werner, C. M., Altman, I., & Oxley, D. (1985). Temporal aspects of homes: A transactional perspective. In I. Altman & C. M. Werner (Eds.), Home environments. Volume 8. Human Behavior and environment (pp. 1–32 ) New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  40. Werner, C. M., Altman, I., Oxley, D., & Haggard, L. M. (1987). People, place and time: A transactional analysis of neighborhoods. In W. H. Jones & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (pp. 243–275 ). New York: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  41. Werner, C. M., Haggard, L. M., Altman, I., & Oxley, D. (1988). Temporal qualities of rituals and celebrations: A comparison of Christmas Street and Zuni Shalako. In J. E. McGrath (Ed.), The social psychology of time: New Perspectives (pp. 203–232 ) Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. White, W. (Ed.). (1979). Resource book on environment and behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irwin Altman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations