A Comparison of Regional Scale Effects of In-Cloud Conversion of SO2 to SO4= in an Eight Layer Diabatic Model with a Single Layer Model

  • W. E. Davis
Part of the NATO · Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 3)


A multilayer and single layer regional scale models have been used in a short term assessment during two frontal storms in October, 1977. A comparison with observed values has been made of results of the model assessments for SO4 air concentrations using an in-cloud SO 4 = wet deposition conversion, an in-rain conversion and no in-cloud or in-rain conversion in the multilayer model. Also an assessment using in-rain conversion using a single layer model was compared with observations. The results were mixed in that the multilayer model with no in-cloud or in-rain conversion yielded the best SO 4 = air concentration patterns while the multilayer model using in-cloud conversion yielded the best fit to observed wet deposition of SO 4 = . Further work is necessary since only 35% of the SO2 emission in emissions northeast United States were used in this study.


Multilayer Model Pacific Northwest Laboratory Constant Layer Precipitation Scavenge Frontal Storm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BOLIN, B. and C. D. PERSSON. 1975. Regional Dispersion and Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants with Particular Application to Sulfur Pollution Over Western Europe. Tellus XVII, 3, 281–310.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORIES. 1975. Regional Energy Studies Program. Annual Report, FY 1975, Phillip F. Palmedo, Ed. 46–61, 91–106.Google Scholar
  3. CARSON, D. J. 1973. “The Development of a Dry Inversion- Capped Convectively Unstable Boundary Layer,” Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 99: 450–467.Google Scholar
  4. DANA, M. T. 1979. The MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network: Second Periodic Summary Report (July 1977-June 1978). PNL-2829, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  5. DANA, M. T., J. M. HALES, W. G. N. SLINN, and M. A. WOLF. 1973. Natural Precipitation Washout of Sulfur Compounds from Plumes. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA–R3–73–047, June 1973.Google Scholar
  6. DANA, M. T. and W. E. DAVIS. 1979. Redistribution of a layer of HTO by Rainfall. Preprint from the Institute of Environmental Sciences 25 th Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA.Google Scholar
  7. DANIELSON, E. F. 1974. Review of Trajectory Methods. Adv. in Geophysics, 18B, Academic Press, 73–94.Google Scholar
  8. DAVIS, W. E., W. J. EADIE and D. C. POWELL. Technical Progress in the Alternate Fuel Cycle Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory 1977 Annual Report, PNL-2500 PT 3, UC-11, Part 3 Atmospheric Sciences, February 1978.Google Scholar
  9. DAVIS, W. E. and L. L. WENDELL. 1976. Some Effects of Isentropic Verical Motion Simulation in a Regional Scale Quasi Lagrangian Air Quality Model. Preprint from the Third Symposium on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion and Air Quality.Google Scholar
  10. DAVIS, W. E. 1979. “Comparison of the Results of an Eight-Layer Regional Model Versus a Single Layer Regional Model for a Short-Term Assessment,” World Meteorological Organization Symposium on Lou-Range Transport of Pollutants, Sophia, Bulgaria.Google Scholar
  11. EADIE, W. J. and W. E. DAVIS. 1979. “The Development of a National Interregional Transport Matrix for Respirable Particulates,” PNL-RAP-37, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA.Google Scholar
  12. EIMUTIS, E. C. and M. G. KONICEK. 1972. Derivations of Continuous Functions for the Lateral and Vertical Atmospheric Dispersion Coefficients. Atmos. Envir., 6, 863–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ENGELMANN, R. J. 1970. Precipitation Scavenging. Proceedings of AEC Symposium Series 22, available through U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information.Google Scholar
  14. HEFFTER, J. L. 1965. The Variation of Horizontal Diffusion Parameters With Time for Travel Periods of One Hour or Longer, J. Appl. Meteor., Vol. 4, February 1965.Google Scholar
  15. HEFFTER, J. L. and G. A. FERBER. 1975. A Regional Continental Scale Transport Diffusion and Deposition Model, Part II: Diffusion-Deposition Models. NOAA Tech. Memo, ERL ARL-50.Google Scholar
  16. KRAIMAL, J. C., J. C. WYNGAARD, D. A. HAUGEN, O. R. COTE, Y. IZUMI, S. J. CAUGHEY and C. J. READINGS. 1976. “Turbulence Strucsture in Convective Boundary Layer. J of the Atm. Sci., 33: 2152–2169.Google Scholar
  17. KREITZBERG, C. W., M. LUTZ and D. J. PERKEY. 1976. Precipitation Cleansing Computation in a Mesoscale Weather Prediction Model. Fate of Pollutants, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Precipitation Scavengiinn. 1970. Editors, R. J. ENGELMAN and W. G. N. SLINN, U.S. AEC Division of Technical Information, CONF-700601.Google Scholar
  19. McNAUGHTON, D. J. and D. C. POWELL. 1980. RAPT - The Pacific Northwest Laboratory Regional Air Pollutant Transport Model: A Guide, PNL-3390, UC-11, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA, March, 1981.Google Scholar
  20. McNAUGHTON, D. J. and B. C. SCOTT. 1980. “Modeling Evidence of In-Cloud Transformation of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate”. JAPCA, Vol. 30, No. 3. March 1980.Google Scholar
  21. McNAUGHTON, D. J. 1980. “Time Series Comparisons of Regional Model Predictions With Sulfur Oxide Observations From the Sure Program”. Presented at 73rd Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Montreal Quebec, June 22–27, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. REITER, E. R. and J. D. MAHLMAN. 1964. Heavy Radioactive Fallout Over the Southern United States, November 1962. Atmos. Sci. Tech., Paper No. 58, 21–49, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
  23. REITER, E. R. and J. D. MAHLMAN. 1965. Heavy Iodine–131 Fallout Over the Midwestern United States, May 1962. Atmos. Sci. Tech., Paper No. 70, USAEC Report C00–1340–2, 1–53, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
  24. RODHE, H. 1974. Some Aspects of the Use of Air Trajectories for the Computation of Large-Scale Dispersion and Fallout Patterns. Adv. in Geophysics, 18E, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. SHEIH, J. 1976. Application of a Lagrangian Statistical Trajectory Model to the Simulation of Sulphur Pollution Over North Eastern United States. Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, October 1976.Google Scholar
  26. VENKATRAM, A. and R. VISKANTA. 1976. Radiative Effects of Pollutants on the Planetary Boundary Layer, Research Triangle Park, NC, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA–600/4–76–039.Google Scholar
  27. WENDELL, L. L. 1972. Mesoscale Wind Fields and Transport Estimates Determined from a Network of Wind Towers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 565–578, July 1972.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. WENDELL, L. L. aid T. D. FOX. 1976. Examination of the Wind Shear in Regional Scale Flow Layers Derived from Radiosonde Data. Pacific Northwest Laboratories Annual Report for 1975 to the USERDA Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, PartiGoogle Scholar
  29. WENDELL, L. L., D. C. POWELL and R. L. DRAKE. 1976. A Regional Scale Model for Computing Deposition and Ground Level Air Concentration of SO2 and SO4= from an Elevated Source. PNL Annual Re.ort for 1975 to RDA Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Part 3, Atmospheric Sciences, BNWL-2000 PT-3, UC-11, 218–223, March 1976.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Davis
    • 1
  1. 1.Pacific Northwest LaboratoryBattelleRichlandUSA

Personalised recommendations