Insertion of the Maize Transposable Element AC Into Poplar

  • Glenn T. Howe
  • Steven H. Strauss
  • Barry Goldfarb
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 210)


The maize transposable element Ac (Activator) was inserted into hybrid poplar (Populus alba x P. grandidentata) using cocultivation of suspension cultures with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Southern blot analysis indicates that six of eight hygromycin-resistant callus lines contain stably integrated foreign DNA. The number of inserted T-DNA copies ranges from approximately 1 to 10. Southern blot analysis suggests that Ac has excised from its original location in the T-DNA. We are currently studying transposition of Ac in transgenic shoots. We believe this to be the first report of transposon activity in a woody plant.


Suspension Culture Transposable Element Southern Blot Analysis Callus Line Hygromycin Phospho Transferase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    An, G., 1985, High efficiency transformation of cultured tobacco cells. Plant Physiol. 79: 568–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    An, G., Ebert, P.R., Mitra, A., and Ha, S.B., 1988, Binary vectors. In: “Plant Molecular Biology Manual,” S.B. Gelvin and R.A. Schilperoort, eds., Kluwer Acad. Pub., Dordrecht, pp. A3/1-A3/19.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker, B., Schell, J., Lorz, H., and Fedoroff, N., 1986, Transposition of the maize controlling element Activator in tobacco. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 4844–4848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baker, B., Coupland, G., Fedoroff, N., Starlinger, P., and Schell, J., 1987, Phenotypic assay for excision of the maize controlling element Ac in tobacco. EMBO J. 6: 1547–1554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Belzile, F., Lassner, M.W., Tong, Y., Khush, R., and Yoder, J.I., 1989, Sexual transmission of transposed Activator elements in transgenic tomatoes. Genetics 123: 181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonas, U., Sommer, H., and Saedler, H., 1984, The 17-kb Taml element of Antirrhinum majus induces a 3-bp duplication upon integration into the chalcone synthase gene. EMBO J. 3: 1015–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coupland, G., Baker, B., Schell, J., and Starlinger, P., 1988, Characterization of the maize transposable element Ac by internal deletions. EMBO J. 7: 3653–3659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coupland, G., Plum, C., Chatterjee, S., Post, A., and Starlinger, P., 1989, Sequences near the termini are required for transposition of the maize transposon Ac in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 9385–9388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dekeyser, R., Claes, B., Marichal, M., Van Montagu, M., and Caplan, A., 1989, Evaluation of selectable markers for rice transformation. Plant Physiol. 90: 217–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fedoroff, N., 1983, Controlling elements in maize. In: “Mobile Genetic Elements,” J.A. Shapiro, ed., Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–63.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fillatti, J.J., Sellmer, J., McCown, B., Haissig, B., and Cornai, L., 1987, Agrobacterium mediated transformation and regeneration of Populus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 206: 192–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Finnegan, E.J., Taylor, B.H., Dennis, E.S., and Peacock, W.J., 1988, Transcription of the maize transposable element Ac in maize seedlings and in transgenic tobacco. Mol. Gen. Genet. 212: 505–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Finnegan, E.J., Taylor, B.H., Craig, S., and Dennis, E.S., 1989, Transposable elements can be used to study cell lineages in transgenic plants. Plant Cell 1: 757–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Frey, M., Tavantzis, S.M., and Saedler, H., 1989, The maize En-1/Spm element transposes in potato. Mol. Gen. Genet., 217: 172–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gritz, L., and Davies, J., 1983, Plasmid-encoded hygromycin B resistance: the sequence of hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene and its expression in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 25: 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haring, M.A., Gao, J., Volbeda, T., Rommens, C.M.T., Nijkamp, H.J.J., and Hille, J., 1989, A comparative study of Tam3 and Ac transposition in transgenic tobacco and petunia plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 13: 189–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hauptmann, R.M., Vasil, V., Ozias-Akins, P., Tabaeizadeh, Z., Rogers, S., Fraley, R.T., Horsch, R.B., and Vasil, I.K., 1988, Evaluation of selectable markers for obtaining stable transformants in the Gramineae. Plant Physiol. 86: 602–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hehl, R. and Baker, B., 1989, Induced transposition of Ds by a stable Ac in crosses of transgenic tobacco plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 217: 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jones, J.D.G., Carland, F.M., Maliga, P. and Dooner, H.K., 1989, Visual detection of transposition of the maize element Activator (Ac) in tobacco seedlings. Science 244: 204–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joos, H., Timmermann, B., Van Montagu, M., and Schell, J., 1983, Genetic analysis of transfer and stabilization of Agrobacterium DNA in plant cells. EMBO J. 2: 2151–2160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Knapp, S., Coupland, G., Uhrig, H., Starlinger, P., and Salamini, F., 1988, Transposition of the maize transposable element Ac in Solanum tuberosum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 213: 285–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Labarca, C., and Paigen, K., 1980, A simple, rapid, and sensitive DNA assay procedure. Anal. Biochem. 102: 344–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lassner, M.W., Palys, J.M., and Yoder, J.I., 1989, Genetic transactivation of Dissociation elements in transgenic tomato plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 218: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lloyd, G.B., and McCown, B.H., 1980, Commercially-feasible micro-propagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Proc. Intl. Plant Prop. Soc. 30: 421–427.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F., and Sambrook, J., 1982, eds., “Molecular Cloning, a Laboratory Manual.” Cold Spring Harbor, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin, C, Carpenter, R., Sommer, H., Saedler, H., and Coen, E.S., 1985, Molecular analysis of instability in flower pigmentation of Antirrinum majus, following isolation of the pallida locus by transposon tagging. EMBO J. 4: 1625–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Masson, P., and Fedoroff, N., 1989, Mobility of the maize Suppressor-mutator element in transgenic tobacco cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 2219–2223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Masson, P., Rutherford, G., Banks, J.A., and Fedoroff, N., 1989, Essential large transcripts of the maize Spm transposable element are generated by alternative splicing. Cell 58: 755–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Murashige, T., and Skoog, F., 1962, A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15: 473–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Murray, M.G., and Thompson, W.F., 1980, Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 8: 4321–4325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Parsons, T.J., Sinkar, V.P., Stettier, R.F., Nester, E.W., and Gordon, M.P., 1986, Transformation of poplar by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bio/Technology 4: 533–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pereira, A., and Saedler, H., 1989, Transpositional behavior of the maize En/Spm element in transgenic tobacco. EMBO J. 8: 1315–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pollock, K., Barfield, D.G., Robinson, S.J., and Shields, R., 1985, Transformation of protoplast-derived cell colonies and suspension cultures by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep. 4: 202–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Reed, K.C., and Mann, D.A., 1985, Rapid transfer of DNA from agarose gels to nylon membranes. Nucleic Acids Res. 13: 7207–7221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reynaerts, A., De Block, M., Hernalsteens, J.-P., and Van Montagu, M., 1988, Selectable and screenable markers. In: “Plant Molecular Biology Manual,” S.B. Gelvin and R.A. Schilperoort, eds., Kluwer Acad. Pub., Dordrecht, pp. A9/1-A9/16.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Russell, J.A., and McCown, B.H., 1986, Techniques for enhanced release of leaf protoplasts in Populus. Plant Cell Rep. 5: 284–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scott, R.J., and Draper, J., 1987, Transformation of carrot tissues derived from proembryogenic suspension cells: A useful model system for gene expression studies in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 8: 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sellmer, J.C., and McCown, B.H., 1989, Transformation in Populus spp. In: “Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry vol. 9: Plant Protoplasts and Genetic Engineering II”, Y.P.S. Bajaj, ed., Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    van den Elzen, P.J.M., Townsend, J., Lee, K.Y., and Bedbrook, J.R., 1985, A chimaeric hygromycin resistance gene as a selectable marker in plant cells. Plant Mol. Biol. 5: 299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Sluys, M.A., and Tempe, J., 1989, Behavior of the maize transposable element Activator in Daucus carota. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219: 313–319.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van Sluys, M.A., Tempe, J., and Fedoroff, N., 1987, Studies on the introduction and mobility of the maize Activator element in Arabidopsis thaliana and Daucus carota. EMBO J. 6: 3881–3889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Veiten, J., Veiten, L., Hain, R., and Schell, J., 1984, Isolation of a dual plant promoter fragment from the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. 3: 2723–2730.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wienand, U., and Saedler, H., 1988, Plant transposable elements: unique structures for gene tagging and gene cloning. In: “Plant DNA Infectious Agents”, T. Hohn and J. Schell, eds., Springer, New York, pp. 205–228.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yoder, J.I., Palys, J., Alpert, K., and Lassner, M., 1988, Ac transposition in transgenic tomato plants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 213: 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zambryski, P., Joos, H., Genetello, C., Leemans, J., Van Montagu, M., and Schell, J., 1983, Ti plasmid vector for the introduction of DNA into plant cells without alteration of their normal regeneration capacity. EMBO J. 2: 2143–2150.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn T. Howe
    • 1
  • Steven H. Strauss
    • 1
  • Barry Goldfarb
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest ScienceOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations