Necking in Embryonal Tube Cells and Its Implications for Morphogenic Protoplasts and Conifer Tree Improvement

  • Don J. Durzan
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 210)


The breakup of viscous protoplasm into alternate smaller and larger protoplasts (necking) occurs naturally as a product of stress in elongated cells of an embryonal-suspensor mass. Necking can also be induced as an artifact of handling these actively streaming cells. Protoplasts, formed as a product of necking inside cells, can be released and recovered by cell-wall digesting enzymes. At least eight size classes of protoplasts can be recovered from cell suspension cultures of the embryonal-suspensor mass. This range of size classes is based on the different cell types (proembryonal, embryonal tube, embryonal suspensor, upper suspensor) and by limited spontaneous fragmentation and fusion of protoplasts among recovered size classes. Staining properties among recovered protoplast size classes reveal that: i) those derived from proembryonal cells may have morphogenic potential; ii) more than one protoplast inside cells of the embryonal tube and suspensor may contain a nucleus derived from a free nuclear stage; iii) the protoplast population represents a varied and fractional genetic potential based on organelles trapped in protoplasts during the necking and fusion processes; and iv) necking in conifer cells may explain illustrations in the literature showing multiple migrating nuclei just after fertilization or in cylindrical cells of the embryonal-suspensor mass. These nuclei produce a new cytoplasm or neocytoplasm associated with the establishment of the classical “basal plan” for proembryonal development. This neocytoplasm interacts in unknown ways to select for chloroplast genomes from pollen and mitochondria of the female parent.


Somatic Embryo Cell Suspension Culture Fluorescein Diacetate Spider Silk Suspensor Cell 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Don J. Durzan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental HorticultureUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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