Exercise and Disease Prevention

  • Roy J. Shephard
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 84)


One of the exciting conclusions reached by the current generation of health educators, and reiterated by speakers at this conference, is that much of the tremendous social and economic burden of poor health could be corrected by a change of life style. In the United States, the annual cost of all illnesses has been estimated at $473 billion (for convenience, costs are here recalculated to their 1982 US equivalent):
  • Direct costs 213.1 B

  • Indirect costs

  • Morbidity 103.4 B

  • Premature death 156.9 B


Physical Activity Ischemic Heart Disease Coronary Risk Factor Geriatric Care Military Population 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, C. L., Brown, T. W., and O’Hara, W. J. Aerobic fitness and coronary risk factors. In C. Allen (ed.) Proceedings of the first RSG4 Physical Fitness Symposium with special reference to military forces. Downsview, Ont.: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. Bardsley, J. Canadian Forces Life Quality Improvement Programme, pp. 264–270. In C. Allen (ed.) Proceedings of the first RSG4 Physical Fitness Symposium with special reference to military forces. Downsview, Ont.: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. Barhad, B. Physical activity in modern history. Physiologie 16 (1979) 117–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, R. E. and Boland, J. P. The work-related costs of alcohol abuse. In C. J. Schramm (ed.) Alcoholism and its treatment in industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. Bjurstrom, K. A. and Alexiou, N. G. A program of heart disease prevention for public employees. Journal of Occupational Medicine 20 (1978) 521–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourne, G. and Wedgwood, J. Heart disease and influenza. Lancet 1 (1959) 1226–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. British Medical Journal. Smoking and colds. British Medical Journal 3 (1974) 594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brünner, D. and Manelis, G. Physical activity at work and ischemic heart disease. In O. A. Larsen and R. O. Malmborg (eds.) Coronary heart disease and physical fitness. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  9. Byrd, R. Impact of physical fitness on police performance. Police Chief. (December, 1976) 30–32.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, K. H., Meyer, B. U., Blide, R., Pollock, M., and Gibbons, L. The important role of fitness determination and stress testing in predicting coronary incidence. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 301 (1977) 642–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corrigan, D. L. Effect of habitual exercise on total health as reflected by non-accidental insurance claims. Action: American Association of Fitness Directors in Business and Industry Journal 3 (1980) 7–8.Google Scholar
  12. Cox, M., Shephard, R. J., and Corey, P. Influence of an employee fitness programme upon fitness, productivity and absenteeism. Ergonomics 24 (1981) 795–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dawber, T. R. The Framingham study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. Dodov, N., Ploshtakov, P., Patcharazov, V., and Nikolova, L. Active sport as a factor for diseases with temporary working incapability among industrial workers. In A. H. Toyne (ed.) Proceedings of 20th world congress in sports medicine. Melbourne: Australian Sports Medicine Federation, 1975.Google Scholar
  15. Epstein, L., Miller, G. J., Stitt, F. W., and Morris, J. N. Vigorous exercise in leisure time, coronary risk factors, and resting electro-cardiogram in middle-aged male civil servants. British Heart Journal 38 (1976) 4093–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erwin, J. People’s Jewelry Company: where a new personnel director introduced recreation and employee services and watched absenteeism fall dramatically. Recreation Management 21 (1978) 18–19.Google Scholar
  17. Farrell, P. A., Gates, W. K., Maskeid, M. G., and Morgan, W. P. Increases in plasma β endorphin/β lipoprotein immune — reactivity after treadmill exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology 52 (1982) 1245–1249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fletcher, C. M. Chronic bronchitis. Its prevalence, nature and pathogenesis. American Review of Respiratory Disease 80 (1959) 483–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Garson, R. D. Pilot project on Metropolitan Life Fitness Program. Unpublished report. Toronto: Metropolitan Life Assurance Co., 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Guthrie, D. I. A new approach to handling in industry. A rational approach to the prevention of low back pain. South African Medical Journal 37 (1973) 654–656.Google Scholar
  21. Hickey, N., Mulcahy, R., Bourke, G. J., Graham, I., and Wilson-Davis, K. Study of coronary risk factors related to physical activity in 15,171 men. British Medical Journal 3 (1975) 507–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jokl, E. Serologische Untersuchungen an Sportslevten. Journal of Experimental Medicine 77 (1931) 65–101.Google Scholar
  23. Jokl, E. The clinical physiology of physical fitness and rehabilitation. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1958.Google Scholar
  24. Jokl, E., Jokl-Ball, M., Jokl, P., and Frankel, L. Notation of exercise. In D. Brunner and E. Jokl (eds.) Medicine and sport, Vol. 4. Physical Activity and Aging. Basel: Karger, 1970.Google Scholar
  25. Jung, K. Incidence of coronary risk factors in pilots of the German Air Force and possibilities to prevent them. In C. Allen (ed.) Proceedings of the first RSG4 Physical Fitness Symposium with special reference to military forces. Downsview, Ont.: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 1978.Google Scholar
  26. Kannel, W. B. Cardiovascular disease: A multifactorial problem (insights from the Framingham Study). In M. L. Pollock and D. H. Schmidt Heart disease and rehabilitation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979.Google Scholar
  27. Karvonen, M. J., Klemola, H., Virkajärvi, J., and Kekkonen, A. Longevity of endurance skiers. Medical Science Sports 6 (1974) 49–51.Google Scholar
  28. Kavanagh, T. and Shephard, R. J. The effects of continued training on the aging process. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 301 (1977) 656–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kilböm, A., Hartley, L. H., Saltin, B., Bjüre, J., Grimby, G., and Astrand, I. Physical training in sedentary middle-aged and older men. I. Medical evaluation. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigation 24 (1969) 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Klarman, H. E. Socio-economic impact of heart disease. In E. C. Andrus (ed.) The heart and circulation. Second national conference on cardiovascular disease, Vol. 2. Community services and education. Washington, D.C. U.S. Public Health Service, 1964.Google Scholar
  31. Krikler, D. M. and Zilberg, B. Activity and hepatitis. Lancet 2 (1966) 1046–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lapiccirella, V., Lapiccirella, R., Abboni, F., and Liotta, S. Enquete clinque, biologie et cardiographique parmi les tribus nomades de le Somalie qui se nourissent seulement de lait. Bulletin of WHO 27 (1962) 681–697.Google Scholar
  33. Löllgen, H. and Pleines, J. Estimation of cardio-pulmonary function by means of the age equivalent. In C. Allen (ed.) Proceedings of the first RSG4 Physical Fitness Symposium with special reference to military forces. Downsview, Ont.: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 1978.Google Scholar
  34. Luce, B. R. and Schweitzer, S. O. Smoking and alcohol abuse: A comparison of their economic consequences. New England Journal of Medicine 298 (1978) 569–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mann, G. V., Garrett, H. L., Farhi, A., et al. Exercise to prevent coronary heart disease. American Journal of Medicine 46 (1969) 12–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mann, G. V., Schaffer, R. D., Anderson, R. S., et al. Cardiovascular disease in the Masai. Journal of Atherosclerosis Research 4 (1965) 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mealy, M. New fitness for police and firefighters. Physician and Sports Medicine 7 (1976) 96–100.Google Scholar
  38. Milan, F. The human biology of circumpolar populations. London: Cambridge University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  39. Montoye, H. J. Physical activity and health. An epidemiologic study of a entire community. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  40. Montoye, H. J., Van Huss, W. D., Olson, H., Hudec, A., and Mahoney, E. Study of the longevity and morbidity of college athletes. Journal of the American Medical Association 162 (1956) 1132–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Morgan, P., Gildiner, M., and Wright, G. R. Smoking reduction in adults who take up exercise: A survey of a running club for adults. CAHPER Journal 42 (1976) 39–43.Google Scholar
  42. Morris, J. N., Adams, C., Chave, S. P. N., Sirey, C., Epstein, L., and Sheehan, D. J. Vigorous exercise in leisure time and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1 (1973) 333–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Morris, J. N., Heady, J. A., and Raffle, P. A. Physique of London busmen: Epidemiology of uniforms. Lancet 2 (1956) 569–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morris, J. N., Kagan, A., Pattison, D. C., Gardner, M. J., and Raffle, P. A. B. Incidence and prediction of ischaemic heart disease in London busmen. Lancet 2 (1966) 553–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Paffenbarger, R. S. Physical activity and fatal heart attack: Protection or selection? In E. A. Amsterdam, J. H. Wilmore, and A. N. deMaria (eds.) Exercise in cardiovascular health and disease. New York: Yorke Medical Books, 1977.Google Scholar
  46. Paffenbarger, R. S., Hale, W. E., Brand, R. J., and Hyde, R. T. Work-energy level, personal characteristics and fatal heart attack: A birth cohort effect. American Journal of Epidemiology 105 (1977) 200–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Pafnote, M., Voida, I., and Luchian, O. Physical fitness in different groups of industrial workers. Physiologie 16 (1979) 129–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Polednak, A. P. Longevity and cardiovascular mortality among former college athletes. Circulation 46 (1972) 649–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Pravosudov, V. P. Effects of physical exercises on health and economic efficiency. In F. Landry and W. A. R. Orban (eds.) Physical activity and human well-being. Miami, Fla.: Symposia Specialists, 1978.Google Scholar
  50. Quasar. The relationships between physical fitness and the cost of health care. Toronto: Quasar Systems, Ltd., 1976.Google Scholar
  51. Remington, R. D. and Schork, M. A. Determination of number of subjects needed for experimental epidemiologic studies of the effect of increased physical activity on incidence of coronary heart disease. Preliminary considerations. In M. J. Karvonen and A. J. Barry (eds.) Physical activity and the heart. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1967.Google Scholar
  52. Rosenman, R. H. The influence of different exercise patterns on the incidence of coronary heart disease in the Western Collaborative group study. In D. Brunner and E. Jokl (eds.) Physical activity and aging. Baltimore, Md.: University Park Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  53. Rosenman, R. H., Bawol, R. D., and Oscherwitz, M. A 4-year prospective study of the relationship of different habitual vocational physical activity to risk and incidence of ischemic heart disease in volunteer male federal employees. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 301 (1977) 627–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Russell, W. R. Poliomyelitis, the pre-paralytic state, and the effect of physical activity on the severity of paralysis. British Medical Journal 2 (1947) 1023–1038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Selye, H. Stress and nation’s health. In W. A. R. Orban (ed.) Proceedings of the National Conference on Fitness and Health. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974. Pp. 65–74.Google Scholar
  56. Shapiro, S., Weinblatt, E., Frank, C. W., and Sager, R. V. Incidence of coronary heart disease in a population insured for medical care (HIP). American Journal of Public Health 59 Supplement 1–101 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Shephard, R. J. Men at Work. Applications of ergonomics to performance and design. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1974.Google Scholar
  58. Shephard, R. J. Summary of Session 3. In C. Allen (ed.) Proceedings of the first RSG4 Physical Fitness Symposium with special reference to military forces. Downsview, Ont.: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 1978a.Google Scholar
  59. Shephard, R. J. Physical activity and aging. London: Croom Helm, 1978b.Google Scholar
  60. Shephard, R. J. Ischemic heart disease and physical activity. London: Croom Helm, 1981.Google Scholar
  61. Shephard, R. J., Corey, P., and Cox, M. Health hazard appraisal — the influence of an employee fitness programme. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 73 (1982) 183–187.Google Scholar
  62. Shephard, R. J., Corey, P., Renzland, P., and Cox, M. The influence of an industrial fitness programme upon medical care costs. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 73 (1982) 259–263.Google Scholar
  63. Shephard, R. J., Cox, M., and Corey, P., Fitness program participation: Its effects on worker performance. Journal of Occupational Medicine 23 (1981) 359–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Sidney, K. H., Shephard, R. J., and Harrison, J. Endurance training and body composition of the elderly. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 30 (1977) 326–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, E. L. and Babcock, S. W. Effects of physical activity on bone loss in the aged. Medical Science Sports 5 (1973) 68.Google Scholar
  66. Taylor, H. L., Klepetar, E., Keys, A., et al. Death rates among physically active and sedentary employees of the railroad industry. American Journal of Public Health 52 (1962) 1697–1707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Taylor, H. L., Pariin, R. W., Blackburn, H., and Keys, A. Problems in the analysis of the relationship of coronary heart disease to physical activity or its lack, with special reference to sample size and occupational withdrawal. In K. Evang and K. L. Andersen (eds.) Physical activity in health and disease. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1966.Google Scholar
  68. Tibblin, G., Wilhelmsen, L., and Werkö, L. Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death due to ischemic disease and other causes. American Journal of Cardiology 35 (1975) 514–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Weinstein, L. Physical activity and poliomyelitis. Boston Medical Quarterly 3 (1952) 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. World Health Organization. The Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease, WHO Report ICP/CVD 002(10). (Copenhagen, 1977).Google Scholar
  71. Young, M. and Willmot, P. The symmetrical family. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy J. Shephard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations