Advertisement

Memory Retrieval Failures Produced by Changes in Drug State

  • Donald A. Overton

Abstract

This chapter will discuss the effects of drugs on the expression of knowledge as indicated by the performance of learned responses by animals. I shall begin with a brief description of the major types of effects of drugs on the acquisition and/or expression of knowledge. I shall then review the available evidence about the effects of changes in drug state on memory retrieval, that is, evidence about state-dependent learning.

Keywords

Physiological Psychology Retention Testing Memory Retrieval Drug State Stimulus Context 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archer, T., and Sjoden, P. Context-dependent taste-aversion learning with a familiar conditioning context. Physiological Psychology, 1980, 8, 40–46.Google Scholar
  2. Archer, T., Sjoden, P., Nilsson, L., and Carter, N. Role of exteroceptive background context in taste-aversion conditioning and extinction. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1979, 7, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barry, H., III. Prolonged measurements of discrimination between alcohol and nondrug states. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 65, 349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry, H., III. Classification of drugs according to their discriminable effects in rats. Federa-tion Proceedings, 1974, 33, 1814–1824.Google Scholar
  5. Barry, H., III, Miller, N. E., and Tidd, G. E. Control for stimulus change while testing effects of amobarbital on conflict. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 1071–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belleville, R. E. Control of behavior by drug-produced internal stimuli. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1964, 5, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bilodeau, I. McD., and Schlosberg, H. Similarity in stimulating conditions as a variable in retroactive inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1951, 41, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bliss, D. K. Dissociated learning and state-dependent retention induced by pentobarbital in Rhesus monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1972, 84, 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bliss, D. K. Theoretical explanations of drug-dissociated behaviors. Federation Proceedings, 1974, 33, 1787–1796.Google Scholar
  10. Carr, H. Maze studies with the white rat. I. Normal animals. Journal of Animal Behavior, 1917, 7, 259–275.Google Scholar
  11. Chiszar, D. A., and Spear, N. E. Stimulus change, reversal learning and retention in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 69, 190–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins, W. The moonstone. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1966. (Originally published, 1868.)Google Scholar
  13. Colpaert, F. C., and Rosecrans, J. A. (Eds.). Stimulus properties of drugs: Ten years of progress. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland, 1978.Google Scholar
  14. Conger, J. J. The effects of alcohol on conflict behavior in the albino rat. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1951, 12, 1–29.Google Scholar
  15. Deweer, B., Sara, S. J., and Hars, B. Contextual cues and memory retrieval in rats: Alleviation of forgetting by a pretest exposure to background stimuli. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1980, 8, 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dulsky, S. G. The effect of a change in background on recall and relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1935, 18, 725–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duncan, P. M. The effects of external stimulus change on ethanol-produced dissociation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 1977, 11, 377–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duncan, P. M., Phillips, J., Reints, J., and Schechter, M. D. Interaction between discrimination of drug states and external stimuli. Psychopharmacology, 1979, 61, 105–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eich, J. E. State-dependent retrieval of information in human episodic memory. In I. M. Birnbaum and E. S. Parker (Eds.), Alcohol and human memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977.Google Scholar
  20. Farnsworth, P. R. Examinations in familiar and unfamiliar surroundings. Journal of Social Psychology, 1934, 5, 128–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gatti, S. V., Pais, N., and Weeks, J. R. Effect of reinstatement procedure on retention of differential appetitive responding. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975, 6, 57–660.Google Scholar
  22. Girden, E. Cerebral mechanisms in conditioning under curare. American Journal of Psychol-ogy, 1940, 53, 397–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Girden, E. Generalized conditioned responses under curare and erythroidine. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1942, 31, 105–119. (a)Google Scholar
  24. Girden, E. The dissociation of blood pressure conditioned responses under erythroidine. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1942, 31, 219–231. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Girden, E. The dissociation of pupillary conditioned reflexes under erythroidine and curare. Journal of Experimental Psychology,1942, 31, 322–332. (c)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Girden, E., and Culler, E. A. Conditioned responses in curarized striate muscle in dogs. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1937, 23, 261–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Godden, D. R., and Baddeley, A. D. Context-dependent memory in two natural environ-ments: On land and underwater. British Journal of Psychology, 1975, 66, 325–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greenspoon, J., and Ranyard, R. Stimulus conditions and retroactive inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1957, 53, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris, R. T., and Balster, R. L. An analysis of the function of drugs in the stimulus control of operant behavior. In T. Thompson and R. Pickens (Eds.), Stimulus properties of drugs. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  30. Harvey, A. M., and Masland, R. L. Actions of curarizing preparations in the human. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1941, 73, 304–311.Google Scholar
  31. Hebb, D. O. The organization of behavior: A neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley, 1949. Heistad, G. T. A bio-psychological approach to somatic treatments in psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1957, 114, 540–545.Google Scholar
  32. Heistad, G. T., and Torres, A. A. A mechanism for the effect of a tranquilizing drug on learned emotional responses. University of Minnesota Medical Bulletin, 1959, 30, 518–527.Google Scholar
  33. Hickis, C. F., Robles, L., and Thomas, D. R. Contextual stimuli and memory retrieval in pigeons. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1977, 5, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ho, B. T., Richards, D. W., III; and Chute, D. L. (Eds.). Drug discrimination and state dependent learning. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  35. Holmgren, B. Nivel de vigilia y reflejos condicionados. Boletin del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Actividad Nerviosa Superior, 1964, 1, 33–50. (a)Google Scholar
  36. Holmgren, B. Conditional avoidance reflex under pentobarbital. Boletin del Instituto de Estudios Medicos y Biologicos, 1964, 22, 21–38. (b)Google Scholar
  37. Hunter, W. S. Some labyrinth habits of the domestic pigeon. Journal of Animal Behavior, 1911, 1, 278–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iwahara, S. Effects of drug-state changes upon two-way shuttle avoidance responses in rats treated with chlordiazepoxide or placebo. Japanese Psychological Research, 1971, 13, 207–218.Google Scholar
  39. Iwahara, S., and Noguchi, S. Drug-state dependency as a function of overtraining in rats. Japanese Psychological Research, 1972, 14, 141–144.Google Scholar
  40. Iwahara, S., and Noguchi, S. Effects of overtraining upon drug-state dependency in discrimination learning in white rats. Japanese Psychological Research, 1974, 16, 59 64.Google Scholar
  41. John, E. R. Mechanisms of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  42. Kilbey, M. M., Harris, R. T., and Aigner, T. G. Establishment of equivalent external and internal stimulus control of an operant behavior and its reversal. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, 1971, 6, 767–768.Google Scholar
  43. Lal, H. (Ed.). Discriminative stimulus properties of drugs. Vol. 22. Advances in behavioral biology. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  44. McGaugh, J. L., and Petrinovich, L. E. Effects of drugs on learning and memory. International Review of Neurobiology, 1965, 8, 139–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Modrow, H. E., and Bliss, D. K. Electrophysiological correlates of state-dependent learning. Physiological Psychology, 1979, 7, 259–262.Google Scholar
  46. Moffett, A., and Ettlinger, G. Opposite responding in two sense modalities. Science, 1966, 153, 205–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Moffett, A., and Ettlinger, G. Opposite responding to position in the light and dark. Neuropsychologia, 1967, 5, 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nadel, L., and Willner, J. Context and conditioning: A place for space. Physiological Psychology, 1980, 8, 218–228.Google Scholar
  49. Oliverio, A. Contrasting effects of scopolamine on mice trained simultaneously with two different schedules of avoidance conditioning. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1967, 11, 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Oliverio, A. Effects of scopolamine on avoidance conditioning of mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1968, 12, 214–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Otis, L. S. Dissociation and recovery of a response learned under the influence of chlorpromazine or saline. Science, 1964, 143, 1347–1348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Overton, D. A. Discriminative behavior based on the presence or absence of drug effects. American Psychologist, 1961, 16, 453–454. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  53. Overton, D. A. State dependent or “dissociated” learning produced with pentobarbital. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1964, 57, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Overton, D. A. State dependent learning produced by depressant and atropine-like drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1966, 10, 6–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Overton, D. A. Differential responding in a three choice maze controlled by three drug states. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1967, 11, 376–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Overton, D. A. Visual cues and shock sensitivity in the control of T-maze choice by drug conditions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66, 216–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Overton, D. A. Control of T-maze choice by nicotinic, antinicotinic, and antimuscarinic drugs. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, 1969, 4, 869–870.Google Scholar
  58. Overton, D. A. Discriminative control of behavior by drug states. In T. Thompson and R. Pickens (Eds.), Stimulus properties of drugs. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1971.Google Scholar
  59. Overton, D. A. State-dependent learning produced by alcohol and its relevance to alcoholism. In B. Kissen and H. Begleiter (Eds.), The biology of alcoholism. Vol. 2. Physiology and behavior. New York: Plenum Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  60. Overton, D. A. State-dependent learning produced by addicting drugs. In S. Fisher and A. M. Freedman (Eds.), Opiate addiction: Origins and treatment. Washington, D.C.: V. H. Winston, 1973.Google Scholar
  61. Overton, D. A. Experimental methods for the study of state-dependent learning. Federation Proceedings, 1974, 33, 1800–1813.Google Scholar
  62. Overton, D. A. Comparative efficacy of various drugs in a T-maze drug discrimination task. Neuroscience Abstracts, 1975, 5, 335.Google Scholar
  63. Overton, D. A. Drug state-dependent learning. In M. E. Jarvik (Ed.), Psychopharmacology in the practice of medicine. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1977.Google Scholar
  64. Overton, D. A. Major theories of state dependent learning. In B. T. Ho, D. W. Richards, III, and D. L. Chute (Eds.), Drug discrimination and state dependent learning. New York: Academic Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  65. Overton, D. A. Drug discrimination training with progressively lowered doses. Science. 1979, 205, 720–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Overton, D. A. Comparison of the degree of discriminability of various drugs using the T-maze drug discrimination paradigm. Psychopharmacology,in press.Google Scholar
  67. Overton, D. A., and Batta, S. K. Investigation of narcotics and antitussives using drug discrimination techniques. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1979, 211, 401–408.Google Scholar
  68. Pan, S. The influence of context upon learning and recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1926, 9, 468–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patrick, J. R., and Anderson, A. C. Incidental stimuli and maze learning. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1930, 10, 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pazzagli, A., and Pepeu, G. Amnesic properties of scopolamine and brain acetylcholine in the rat. International Journal of Neuropharmacology, 1964, 4, 291–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pessin, J. The effect of similar and dissimilar conditions upon learning and relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1932, 15, 427–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Petersen, R. C. Retrieval failures in alcohol state-dependent learning. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1977, 55, 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rand, G., and Wapner, S. Postural status as a factor in memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1967, 6, 268–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reed, H. J. The influence of a change in conditions upon the amount recalled. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1931, 14, 632–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rescorla, R. A., and Wagner, A. R. A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. H. Black and W. F. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning. Vol. 2. Current research and theory. New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts, 1972.Google Scholar
  76. Riccio, D. C., Urda, M., and Thomas, D. R. Stimulus control in pigeons based on pro-prioceptive stimuli from floor inclination. Science, 1966, 153, 434–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sachs, E. The role of brain electrolytes in learning and retention. Federation Proceedings, 1961, 20, 339. (Abstract)Google Scholar
  78. Sachs, E. Dissociation of learning in rats and its similarities to dissociative states in man. In J. Zubin and H. Hunt (Eds.), Comparative psychopathology. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1967.Google Scholar
  79. Sachs, E., Weingarten, M., and Klein, N. W., Jr. Effects of chlordiazepoxide on the acquisition of avoidance learning and its transfer to the normal state and other drug conditions. Psychopharmacology (Berl.), 1966, 9, 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Semon, R. Die Mneme (L. Simon, trans.).London: George Allen and Unwin, 1921. (Originally published, 1904 )Google Scholar
  81. Smith, S. M., Brown, H. O., Toman, J. E. P., and Goodman, L. S. The lack of cerebral effects of d-tubocurarine. Anesthesiology, 1947, 8, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Spear, N. E. Forgetting as retrieval failure. In W. K. Honig and P. H. R. James (Eds.), Animal memory. New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  83. Spear, N. E. Retrieval of memory in animals. Psychological Review, 1973, 80, 163–194.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Spear, N. E., Smith, G. J., Bryan, R. G., Gordon, W. C., Timmons, R., and Chiszar, D. A. Contextual influences on the interaction between conflicting memories in the rat. Animal Learning and Behavior, 1980, 8, 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tomie, A. Retardation of autoshaping: Control by contextual stimuli. Science, 1976, 192, 1244–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Watson, J. B. Kinaesthetic and organic sensations: Their role in the reactions of the white rat to the maze. Psychological Review Monographs 1907, 8(33).Google Scholar
  87. Weingartner, H., Walker, T., Eich, J. E., and Murphy, D. L. Storage and recall of verbal and pictorial information. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1976, 7, 349–351.Google Scholar
  88. Welker, R. L., Tomie, A., Davitt, G. A., and Thomas, D. R. Contextual stimulus control over operant responding in pigeons. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1974, 86, 549–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zentall, T. R. Effects of context change on forgetting in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 86, 440 448.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald A. Overton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryTemple University School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations