Advertisement

Memory, Amnesia, and the Episodic/Semantic Distinction

  • Daniel L. Schacter
  • Endel Tulving

Abstract

Imagine that our present civilization develops more or less peacefully and that the world is still intact a thousand years from now. Imagine further that you could visit the future world and bring back with you, among other things, the answer to one crucial question about human memory. What would be the question, and why?

Keywords

Free Recall Retention Interval Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Autobiographical Memory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abeles, M., & Schilder, P. Psychogenic loss of personal identity. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1935, 34, 587–604.Google Scholar
  2. Adatto, C. P. Observations on criminal patients during narcoanalysis. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1949, 62, 82–92.Google Scholar
  3. Albert, M. S., Butters, N., & Levin, J. Memory for remote events in chronic alcoholics and alcoholic Korsakoff patients. In H. Begleiter & B. Kissen (Eds.), Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal. New York: Plenum Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. R., & Ross, B. H. Evidence against a semantic-episodic distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1980, 6, 441–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azam, M. Periodical amnesia; or, double consciousness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1876, 3, 584–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Banister, H., & Zangwill, O. L. Experimentally induced visual paramnesias. British Journal of Psychology, 1941, 32, 30–51.Google Scholar
  7. Berch, D. B. Coding of spatial and temporal information in episodic memory. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 3 ). New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Bergson, H. Matter and memory (N. M. Paul & W. S. Palmer, trans.). New York: Macmillan, 1911.Google Scholar
  9. Berrington, W. P., Liddell, D. W., & Foulds, G. A. A re-evaluation of the fugue. Journal of Mental Science, 1956, 102, 280–286.Google Scholar
  10. Brooks, D. N., & Baddeley, A. D. What can amnesic patients learn? Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Claparède, E. Recognition and “me-ness.” In D. Rapaport (Ed.), Organization and pathology of thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951. (Originally published, 1911.)Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, N. J., & Squire, L. R. Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of “knowing how” and “knowing that.” Science, 1980, 210, 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 1975, 82, 407–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, L. M. Spontaneous and suggested posthypnotic source amnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1966, 14, 180–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coriat, I. H. The Lowell case of amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1907, 2, 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corkin, S. Tactually-guided maze learning in man: Effects of unilateral cortical excisions and bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1965, 3, 339–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corkin, S. Acquisition of motor skill after bilateral medial temporal-lobe excision. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crovitz, H. F., & Schiffman, H. Frequency of episodic memories as a function of their age. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1974, 4, 517–518.Google Scholar
  19. Ebbinghaus, H. Memory. (H. A. Ruger & C. E. Bussenius, Trans.). New York: Dover Press, 1964. (Originally published, 1885.)Google Scholar
  20. Evans, F. J. Posthypnotic source amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1979, 88, 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, F. J., & Thorn, W. A. F. Two types of posthypnotic amnesia: Recall amnesia and source amnesia. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 1966, 14, 162–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eysenck, M. W. Retrieval from semantic memory as a function of age. Journal of Gerontology, 1975, 80, 174–180.Google Scholar
  23. Gheorghiu, V. Some peculiarities of posthypnotic source amnesia of information. In L. Chertok (Ed.), Psychophysiological mechanisms of hypnosis. New York: Springer, 1969.Google Scholar
  24. Gillespie, R. D. Amnesia. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1937, 37, 748–764.Google Scholar
  25. Grünthal, E. Zur Kenntnis der Psycholopathologie des korsakowschen Symptomen Komplexes. Monatschrift f ür Psychiatrie and Neurologie, 1923, 53, 89–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hannigan, M. L., Shelton, T. S., Franks, J. J., & Bransford, J. D. The effects of episodic and semantic memory on the identification of sentences masked by white noise. Memory and Cognition, 1980, 8, 278–284.Google Scholar
  27. Herrmann, D. J., & Harwood, J. R. More evidence for the existence of separate semantic and episodic stores in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1980, 6, 467–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Herrmann, D. J., & McLaughlin, J. P. Effects of experimental and preexperimental organization on recognition: Evidence for two storage systems in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 99, 174–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Homa, D., Rhoads, D., & Chambliss, D. Evolution of conceptual structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1979, 5, 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hopwood, J. S., & Snell, H. K. Amnesia in relation to crime. Journal of Mental Science, 1933, 79, 27–41.Google Scholar
  31. Hull, C. L. Quantitative aspects of the evolution of concepts. Psychological Monographs,1920, 28 (1, Whole No. 123).Google Scholar
  32. Hull, C. L. Hypnosis and suggestibility. New York: Appleton-Century, 1933.Google Scholar
  33. Huppert, F. A., & Piercy, M. Recognition memory in amnesic patients: Effect of temporal context and familiarity of material. Cortex, 1976, 12, 3–20.Google Scholar
  34. James, W. The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Henry Holt, 1890.Google Scholar
  35. Janet, P. The mental state of hystericals. New York: Putnam, 1901.Google Scholar
  36. Johnson, J. H., Klinger, D. E., & Williams, T. A. Recognition in episodic long-term memory in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1977, 33, 643–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, E. Remarks on a case of complete autopsychic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1909, 4, 218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kanzer, M. Amnesia: A statistical study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1939, 96, 711–716.Google Scholar
  39. Kennedy, A., & Neville, J. Sudden loss of memory. British Medical Journal, 1957, 2, 428–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kihlstrom, J. F. Posthypnotic amnesia for recently learned material: Interactions with “episodic” and “semantic” memory. Cognitive Psychology, 1980, 12, 227–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kinsboume, M. Episodic-semantic distinction. In L. S. Cermak (Ed.), Human memory and amnesia. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982.Google Scholar
  42. Kinsbourne, M., & Wood, F. Short-term memory processes and the amnesic syndrome. In D. Deutsch & J. A. Deutsch (Eds.), Short-term memory. New York: Academic Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  43. Kolers, P. A. Memorial consequences of automatized encoding. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1975, 1, 689–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kolers, P. A. Reading a year later. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1976, 2, 554–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Korsakoff, S. S. Über eine besondere Form psychischer Störung kombiniert mit multiplen Neuritis. Archiv f ür Psychiatrie and Nervenkrankheiten, 1889, 21, 669–704.Google Scholar
  46. Leavitt, F. H. The etiology of temporary amnesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1935, 91, 1079–1087.Google Scholar
  47. Lennox, W. G. Amnesia, real and feigned. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1943, 99, 732–743.Google Scholar
  48. Loftus, E. F. Activation of semantic memory. American Journal of Psychology, 1973, 86, 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Luria, A. R. The neuropsychology of memory. Washington: V. H. Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  50. MacCurdy, J. T. Common principles in psychology and physiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1929.Google Scholar
  51. McKoon, G., & Ratliff, R. Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1979, 18, 463–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miller, G. A., & Johnson-Laird, P. N. Language and perception. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  53. Milner, B. Memory disturbances after bilateral hippocampal lesions. In P. Milner & S. Glickman (Eds.), Cognitive process and the brain. Princeton, N. J.: Van Nostrand, 1965. (Originally published, 1962.)Google Scholar
  54. Milner, B. Memory and the medial temporal regions of the brain. In K. H. Pribram & D. E. Broadbent (Eds.), Biology of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  55. Milner, B., Corkin, S., & Teuber, H. L. Further analysis of the hippocampal-amnesic syndrome: Fourteen-year follow-up study of H. M. Neuropsychologia, 1968, 6, 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moeser, S. D. Inferential reasoning in episodic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1976, 15, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Munsat, S. The concept of memory. New York: Random House, 1966.Google Scholar
  58. Muter, P. Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory. Memory and Cognition, 1978, 6, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nelson, K., & Brown, A. L. The semantic-episodic distinction in memory development. In P. A. Ornstein (Ed.), Memory development in children. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  60. Nielsen, J. M. Memory and amnesia. Los Angeles: San Lucas Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  61. Owen, G., & Williams, M. Factors affecting the sense of familiarity with cue-elicited responses in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18, 85–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Patten, E. F. Does post-hypnotic amnesia apply to practice effects? Journal of General Psychology, 1932, 7, 196–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Petrey, S. Word associations and the development of lexical memory. Cognition, 1977, 5, 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. Memory and intelligence. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.Google Scholar
  65. Price, G. E., & Terhune, W. B. Feigned amnesia as a defense reaction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1919, 72, 565–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Prince, M. The dissociation of a personality. New York: Longmans, Green, 1910.Google Scholar
  67. Quillian, M. R. Semantic memory. In M. Minsky (Ed.), Semantic information processing. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  68. Reiff, R., & Scheerer, M. Memory and hypnotic age regression. New York: International Universities Press, 1959.Google Scholar
  69. Robinson, J. A. Sampling autobiographical memory. Cognitive Psychology, 1976, 8, 578–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rozin, P. The psychobiological approach to human memory. In M. R. Rosenzweig & E. L. Bennett (Eds.), Neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  71. Russell, P. N., & Beekhuis, M. E. Organization in memory: A comparison of psychotics and normals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1976, 85, 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Russell, W. R. The traumatic amnesias. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  73. Sargant, W., & Slater, E. Amnesic syndromes in war. Proceedings in the Royal Society of Medicine, 1941, 34, 754–764.Google Scholar
  74. Schachtel, E. G. On memory and childhood amnesia. Psychiatry, 1947, 10, 1–26.Google Scholar
  75. Schacter, D. L., & Tulving, E. Amnesia and memory reserach. In L. S. Cermak (Ed.), Human memory and amnesia. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982.Google Scholar
  76. Schacter, D. L., Tulving, E., & Wang, P. Source amnesia: New methods and illustrative data. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, Atlanta, 1981.Google Scholar
  77. Shallice, T. Neuropsychological research and the fractionation of memory systems. In L. G. Nilsson (Ed.), Perspectives on memory reserach. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  78. Shoben, E. J., Wescourt, K. T., & Smith, E. E. Sentence verification, sentence recognition, and the semantic/episodic distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 1978, 4, 304–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sidis, B. Symptomatology, psychognosis, and diagnosis of psychopathic diseases. Boston: Richard C. Bodger, 1914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Siegal, L. J. Amnesia: Its integrative analysis in psychopathological orientation. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1951, 66, 700–707.Google Scholar
  81. Smith, J. E. A selection of the correspondence of Linnaeus and other naturalists (Vol. 2 ). New York: Arno Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  82. Starr, A., & Phillips, L. Verbal and motor memory in the amnesic syndrome. Neuropsychologia, 1970, 8, 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stengel, E. On the aetiology of the fugue states. Journal of Mental Science, 1941, 87, 572–599.Google Scholar
  84. Störring, G. E. Über den ersten reinen Fall eines Menschen mit völligen, isolierten Verlust der Merkfähigkeit. Archiv für die Gesamte Psychologie, 1931, 81, 257–384.Google Scholar
  85. Strickler, C. B. A qualitative study of post-hypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1929, 24, 108–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thom, D. A., & Fenton, W. Amnesia in war cases. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1920, 76, 437–448.Google Scholar
  87. Tulving, E. Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  88. Tulving, E., & Pearlstone, Z. Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1966, 5, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L., & Stark, H. Priming effects in word-fragment completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 1982, 8, 336–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. New method of testing long-term retention with special reference to amnesic patients. Nature, 1968, 217, 972–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. Amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval ? Nature, 1970, 228, 629–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Warrington, E. K., & Weiskrantz, L. The effect of prior learning on subsequent retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weiskrantz, L., & Warrington, E. K. Conditioning in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia, 1979, 17, 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Williamsen, J. A., Johnson, H. J., & Eriksen, C. W. Some characteristics of posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilson, G., Rupp, C., & Wilson, W. W. Amnesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1950, 106, 481–485.Google Scholar
  96. Wood, F., & Ebert, V. The episodic-semantic memory distinction in memory and amnesia: Clinical and experimental observations. In L. S. Cermak (Ed.), Human memory and amnesia. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982.Google Scholar
  97. Wood, F., Taylor, B., Penny, R., & Stump, D. Regional cerebral blood flow response to recognition memory versus semantic classification tasks. Brain and Language, 1980, 9, 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zangwill, O. L. Some qualitative observations on verbal memory in cases of cerebral lesions. British Journal of Psychology, 1946, 37, 8–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel L. Schacter
    • 1
  • Endel Tulving
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations