Bose-Einstein Condensation in Two-Dimensional Systems

  • Y. Imry
  • David J. Bergman
  • L. Gunther


It is a well-known and accepted fact that two- and one-dimensional systems of bosons do not undergo Bose-Einstein condensation at any finite temperature.1 We would like to point out that while this is true when the system is kept at a fixed volume, a quite different behavior is obtained if the system is kept instead at a fixed pressure. In the latter case an ideal Bose gas undergoes a continuous phase transition (i.e., not a first-order transition) to a state where all the particles are condensed in the lowest-lying single particle (s.p.) state. A modified form of this transition may remain even in realistic systems of interacting bosons.


Thermodynamic Limit Condensed State Bose Condensation Continuous Phase Transition Average Interparticle Distance 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Imry
    • 1
    • 2
  • David J. Bergman
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Gunther
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Soreq Nuclear Research CenterYavneIsrael
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

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