Bose-Einstein Condensation in Two-Dimensional Systems
It is a well-known and accepted fact that two- and one-dimensional systems of bosons do not undergo Bose-Einstein condensation at any finite temperature.1 We would like to point out that while this is true when the system is kept at a fixed volume, a quite different behavior is obtained if the system is kept instead at a fixed pressure. In the latter case an ideal Bose gas undergoes a continuous phase transition (i.e., not a first-order transition) to a state where all the particles are condensed in the lowest-lying single particle (s.p.) state. A modified form of this transition may remain even in realistic systems of interacting bosons.
KeywordsThermodynamic Limit Condensed State Bose Condensation Continuous Phase Transition Average Interparticle Distance
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