Transport Properties of Electron Bubbles in Liquid He II
As was found by Spangler and Hereford,1 thermal electrons can be injected into the He II bath by heating tungsten filament immersed in the liquid. This method is useful for studying electron bubbles because it can supply a large quantity of electrons. However, many phenomena associated with this method have not been sufficiently analyzed. It is believed that the sudden onset of turbulence or a bubble near the filament surface appears above a critical heat power W c which depends on the depth and temperature of the liquid.2,3 The process in the vicinity of the wire resembles film boiling4 when the He depth is shallow ( ≲ 3cm) or the temperature is high (≳ 1.8°K), while it results in a quiescent vapor bubble or a gas sheath in the deep bath ( ≳ 10 cm) at low temperature ( ≲ 1.5°K).
KeywordsTungsten Filament Filament Temperature Escape Probability Electron Bubble Heat Flow Region
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