Endothelium in Hemostasis and Thrombosis
In the normal vasculature, blood platelets circulate freely through the vessels and no fibrin is formed. The capacity of the endothelium, which forms the inner lining of the blood vessel wall, to inhibit the activation of the coagulation cascade and to prevent platelet adhesion has been called “non-thrombogenicity”. The endothelium consists of a monolayer of cells, which have, under normal conditions, two different sites. The apical site faces the blood stream and is non-thrombogenic. On the basal site the cells synthesize an extracellular matrix, the subendothelium, which has thrombogenic properties. After contraction or desquamation of endothelial cells platelets rapidly adhere to the exposed subendothelium.
KeywordsEndothelial Cell Shear Rate Tissue Factor Platelet Adhesion Fluid Shear Stress
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Gurwen, K.D. and Gimbrone, Jr., M.A., 1980, The role of protacyclin in platelet adhesion to cultured normal and virally transformed human endothelial cells, Lab. Invest., 42: 366.Google Scholar
- de Groot, Ph.G., Verwey, C.L., Nawroth, P.P., de Boer, M.C., Stern, D.M. and Sixma, J.J., 1987, Interleukin-1 inhibits the synthesis of von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells which results in a decreased reactivity of their matrix towards platelets, Arteriosclerosis, 7: 605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dewey, Jr., C.F., Bussolari, S.R., Gimbrone, Jr., M.A. and Davies, P.F., 1981, Dynamic response of vascular cells to fluid shear stress, J. Bio. Mech. Eng., 103: 177.Google Scholar
- Gabrowski, E.F., Jaffe, E.A. and Weksler, B.B., 1985, Prostacyclin production by cultured endothelial cell monolayers exposed to step increases in shear stress, J. Lab. Clin. Med., 105: 36.Google Scholar
- Gimbrone, Jr., M.A., 1986, “Vascular Endothelium in Hemostasis and Trombosis”, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London.Google Scholar
- Grim, J., Keller, R. and de Groot, Ph.G., Laminar flow induces metabolism in endothelial cells, Thromb. Haemostas.,in press.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, E.A., 1984, “Biology of endothelial cells”, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston.Google Scholar
- Nawroth, P.P., Handley, D.A., Esmon, C.T. and Stern, D.M., 1986, Interleukin-1 induces endothelial cell procoagulant while suppressing cells from adult and umbilical cord arteries and veins, Thromb. Haemostas., 56: 189.Google Scholar
- Radomski, M.W., Palmer, R.M. and Moncada, S., 1987, The role of nitric thelium, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 14: 1482.Google Scholar
- van Wachum, P.B., Reinders, J.H., van Buul-Wortelboer, M.F., de Groot, Ph.G., van Aken, W.G., and van Mourik, J.A., 1986, Von Willebrand factor in cultured human vascular endothelial cells from adult and umbilical cord arteries and veins,Thromb. Haemostas., 56: 189.Google Scholar
- Zwaginga, J.J., Sixma, J.J. and de Groot, Ph. G., 1987, Activation of necrosis factor or endotoxin induces platelet thrombus formation on their matrix. Studies of a new ex-vivo thrombosis model using low molecular weight heparin as anti-coagulant, Brit. J. Haematol., 66: 420.Google Scholar
- Zwaginga, J.J., de Boer, H.C., Kerkhof, A., Sixma, J.J. and de Groot, Ph.G., 1988, Procoagulant activity associated with matrix of cultured human vessel wall cells induces thrombus formation in an ex-vivo model using whole blood, (submitted for publication).Google Scholar