Werner’s Syndrome: A Review of its Symptomatology, Natural History, Pathologic Features, Genetics and Relationship to the Natural Aging Process

  • Charles J. Epstein
  • George M. Martin
  • Amelia L. Schultz
  • Arno G. Motulsky
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 190)


Werner’s syndrome was first described in 1904 by Otto Werner in his doctoral thesis, “Uber Katarakt in Verbindung mit Sklerodermie” (“Cataract in combination with scleroderma”) (137). He reported four sibs with similar clinical findings: shortness of stature; senile appearance; graying of the hair beginning at about age 20; cataracts appearing during the third decade; skin changes (tautness, atrophy, hyperkeratoses and ulceration) designated as scleroderma and primarily involving the feet and, to a lesser degree, the hands; joint deformities associated with the skin abnormalities; atrophy of the muscles and connective tissues of the extremities; and early cessation of menstruation. Werner was impressed principally by the cataracts, skin changes, senile appearance, and graying of the hair and attributed the condition to a “failure” of the cells derived from the ectoderma. Although he knew that the features displayed by the affected members of the family represented a new and distinct entity, he related this condition to one described by Rothmund (106) in which juvenile cataracts were found together with skin changes. The implied association of these two syndromes and the identification of the skin alterations in Werner’s cases as scleroderma were sources of confusion for many years, and it was not until the appearance of the paper by Oppenheimer and Kugel in 1934 (94) and of the comprehensive study by Thannhauser in 1945 (131) that the two syndromes were clearly delineated and the character of the skin changes defined.


Birth Order Seminiferous Tubule Vascular Calcification Natural Aging Skin Change 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Agatston, S.A. and Gartner, S.: Precocious cataracts and scleroderma (Rothmund’s syndrome; Werner’s syndrome). Arch. Ophthal. 21: 492, 1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander, P. and Connell, D.I.: Differences between radiation-induced life span shortening in mice and normal aging as revealed by serial killing, in Cellular Bases and Etiology of Late Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation, ed. by Harris, R.J.C., Academic Press, New York, 1963, p. 277.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakker, B.J.: Syndrome von Werner. Dermatologica (Basel), 109: 230, 1954.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bakker, B.J.: Syndroom van Werner. Ned. Tschr. Geneesk. 98: 1662, 1954.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baudhuin, P., Hers, H.G. and Loeb, H.: An electron microscopic and biochemical study of type II glycogenosis. Lab. Invest. 13: 1140, 1964.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bauer, J.M. and Conn, J.W.: Werner’s syndrome. A study of adrenocortical and hepatic steroidal metabolism. Texas J. Med. 44: 882, 1953.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell, J.: Determination of the consanguinity rate in the general hospital population of England and Wales. Ann. Eugen. 10: 370, 1940.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bellafiore, V.: Su un caso di sindrome di Werner. Ann. Ital. Derm. 5if. 14: 53, 1959.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bennedeti, G.: Zur Psychopathologie des Wernerschen Syndrome. Confina Neur. (Basel) 13: 27, 1953.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bessman, S.P.: Some biochemical lessons to be learned from phenylketonuria. J. Pediat. 64: 828, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blau, J.N. (for Earl, C.J.): Werner’s syndrome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 55: 328, 1962.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blodgett, F.M., Burgin, L., Iezzoni, D., Gribetz, D. and Talbot, N.B.: Effects of prolonged cortisone therapy on the statural growth, skeletal maturation and metabolic status of children. New Engl. J. Med. 254: 636, 1956.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blumenthal, H.F. and Berns, A.W.: Autoimmunity and aging. Adv. Gerontological Res. 1: 289, 1964.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boatwright, H., Wheeler, C.E. and Cawley, E.P.: Werner’s syndrome. A.M.A. Arch Intern. Med. 90: 243, 1952.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boyd, M.W. and Grant, A.P.: Werner’s syndrome (progeria of the adult). Further pathological and biochemical observations. Brit. Med. J. 2: 920, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brink, A.J. and Findlay, G.H.: Werner’s syndrome. Ulcerating atrophodermia, cataracts and premature senility. Report of a case. South Afr. Med. J. 24: 318, 1950.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brodey, A. and Ruppe, J., Jr.: Werner’s syndrome. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 69: 243, 1954.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brouwer, K.: Het syndroom van Werner. Ned. Tschr. Geneesk. 99: 2056, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buschke, W.: Dystrophic cataracts and their relation to other “metabolic” cataracts. Arch. Ophthal. 30: 751, 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Carney, J.W.: Werner’s syndrome. Arch. Derm. 87: 756, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Casarett, G.W.: Similarities and contrasts between radiation and time pathology. Adv. Gerontological Res. 1: 109, 1964.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caughey, E. and Myrianthopoulos, N.C.: Dystrophia Myotonia and Related Disorders. Thomas, Springfield, I11., 1963.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chorazak, T., Kochanowicz, T. and Pietrzykowska, A.: Das Werner-Syndrom in der Gruppe der Kongenitalen Hautatrophien mit einem Bericht uber einen eigenen Fall. Hautarzt 12: 116, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen, M. and Shelley, W.B.: Ankle ulcer sign of Werner’s syndrome. Arch. Derm. 87: 86, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Comfort, A.: Ageing, the biology of senescence. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1964, p. 216.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Curtis, H.J.: Biological mechanisms underlaying the aging process. Science, 141: 686, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Danowski, T.S.: Progeria in chidren and adults, in Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 1, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1962, p. 244.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Daughaday, W.H.: The adenohypophysis, in Textbook of Endrocrinology, 3rd Ed., ed. by Williams, R.H., W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1962, p. 11.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Daweke, H., Jahnke, K. and Zimmerman, H.: Untersuchungen des Kohlenhydrat-und Fettstoff-wechsels beim Werner-Syndrom. Deut. Arch. Klin. Med. 208:553, 1963Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    De Berardinis, E: Contributo allo studio delle cataratte sindermatotiche. Un case tipico di sindrone di Werner. Giorn. Ital. Oftalmol. 7: 3, 1954.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deuchar, D.C.: Werner’s syndrome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 49: 316, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Doak, P.B. and Eyre, K.E.D.: Werner’s syndrome. New Zeal. Med. J. 59: 574, 1960.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dobree, J.H.: Cataract, in Modern Opththalmology, ed. By Sorsby, A., Butterworth and Co., Washington, 1964, p. 598.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dumaine, L. and Lozeron, P.: Contribtion a l’etude clinique et genetique de la dystrophie myotonique (Steinert) et de la myotonie congenitale (Thomsen). J. Genet. Hum. 10: 221, 1961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eguchi, H.: Uber Katarakte bei pluriglandularen Infantilismus mit Sklerodermie. Acta Soc. Opththal. Jap. 34:167 (in Japanese), 185 (in German), 1930.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ellison, D.J. and Pugh, D.W.: Werner’s syndrome. Brit. Med. J. 2: 237, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fedrizzi, G.: Sumorbo di Werner-studio clinico. Soc. Ophthal. Lombarda. Atti. (Milano). 11: 276, 1956.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Field, J.B. and Loube, S.D.: Observations concerning the diabetes mellitus associated with Werner’s syndrome. Metabolism, 9: 118, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finney, D.J.: The truncated binomial distribution. Ann. Eugen. 14: 319, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Flandin, C., Poumeau-Delille, G. and Olivier, J.: Un noveau cas familial de maladie de Rothmund. Bull. Soc. Med. Hop. Paris, 24: 1181, 1936.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Flandin, C., Poumeau-Delille, G. and Perreau, R.: Syndrome pluriglandulaire, maladie de Rothmund. Bull. Soc. Med. Hop. Paris, 24: 1184, 1936.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Force, B.P. and Powell, C.F.: Progeria in the adult (Werner’s syndrome). U.S. Armed Forces Med. J. 1: 578, 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Forsham, P.H.: The adrenals, in Textbook of Endocrinology, 3rd Ed., ed. by Williams, R.H., W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, and London, 1962, p. 282.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fraccaro, M., Bott, M.G. and Calvert, H.T.: Chromosomes in Werner’s syndrome. Lancet, 1: 536, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franceschetti, A. and Maeder, G.: Cataracte et affections cutanees du type poikilodermie (syndrome de Rothmund) et du type sclerodermie (syndrome de Werner). Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 79: 657, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gabr, M.: Progeria, a pathologic study. J. Pediat. 57: 780, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldman, H.: Senile changes of the lens and the vitreous. Amer. J. Ophthal. 57: 1, 1964.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goodman, D.S., Avigan, J. and Wilson, H.: The metabolism of desmosterol in human subjects during triparanol administration. J. Clin. Invest. 41: 962, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grant, A.P.: Werner syndrome (progeria in the adult). Ulster Med. J. 26: 65, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Greither, A.: Uber das Rothmund-und das Werner-syndrom. II. Die Symptomatologie des Werner-syndroms. III. Die Abgrenzung beider Zustande gegeneinander. Arch. Klin. Exp. Derm. 201: 423; 431, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Guillaine, G., Alajouanine, F. and Marquezy, R.: Sclerodermie progressive avec cataracte double precoce chez un infantile. Bull. Soc. med. Hop. Paris, 47: 1489, 1923.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Haldane, J.B.S. and Smith, C.A.B.: A simple exact test for birth order. Ann. Eugen. 14: 117, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hamilton, H.B., Neel, J.V., Kobara, T.Y., and Ozaki, K.: Frequency in Japan of carriers of the rare “recessive” gene causing acatalasemia, J. Clin. Invest. 40: 2199, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hasimoto, T.P.: Ein Fall von Sklerodermie Kombiniert mit Katarakt. Jap. J. Derm. 30:90 (in Japanese), 130 (in German), 1930.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hempelmann, L.H. and Hoffman, J.G.: Practical aspects of radiation injury. Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 3: 369, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Herstone, S.K. and Bower, J.: Werner’s syndrome. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 51: 639, 1944.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hotchkiss, R.S.: Infertility in the male, in Urology, Vol. I, ed. by Campbell, M.F., Saunders, Philadelphia, 1963, p. 643.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Illis, L.: A case of Werner’s syndrome. Post-grad. Med. J. 38: 286, 1962.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Incedayi, C.K.: Bir “Werner syndrome” u vak’asi. Instanbul. Univ. Tip fakultesi. Mecmua (Bull. Fac. Med. Istanbul), 16: 503, 1953.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Irwin, G.W. and Ward, P.B.: Werner’s syndrome, with report of two cases. Amer. J. Med. 15: 266, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jablonska, S. and Segal, P.: Das Wernersche Syndrom und dessen atypische Formen, beziehungsweisse Verwandte Syndrome. Minerva Derm. 34: 259, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jablonska, S., Segal, P. and Kukasiak, B.: Zespol Wernera (Werner’s syndrome). Przegl. Derm. 8: 277, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jacobs, P.A., Brunton, M., Court-Brown, of human chromosome count distributions with age: evidence for a sex difference. Nature, 197: 1080, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jacobson, H.G., Rifkin, H. and Zucker-Franklin, D.: Werner’s syndrome: a clinical roetgenological entity. Radiology, 74: 373, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jelek, M.: Pripad Wernerova syndromu leceny oxygenotherapii (A case of Werner’s syndrome treated by oxygen). Cseck. Derm. (Praha), 32: 263, 1957.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kallos, A. and Ruppe, J.P., Jr.: Werner’s syndrome. New York J. Med. 54: 2180, 1954.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kansky, A. and Franzot, J.: Werner’s syndrome. Acta Dermatovener. 43: 44, 1963.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Karam, J.H., Grodsky, G.M., Pavlatos, F.C. and Forsham, P.H.: Critical factors in excessive serum-insulin response to glucose. Obesity in maturity onset diabetes and growth hormone in acromegaly. Lancet, 1: 286, 1965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kleeberg, J.: A case of Werner’s syndrome. Acta Med. Orient (Tel Aviv) 8–9: 145, 1949.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Knap, J.: A case of Rothmund’s disease. Acta Dermatovener. 25: 302, 1945.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Knowth, W., Baethke, R., and Hoffman, L.: Uber das Werner-Syndrom. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Schilddruesenfunktion nach Radiojodstudium, der symptomatologie der Schrifttumsfaelle and der histologischen Differentialdiagnose zum Rothmund-syndrom. Hautarzt 14: 145; 193, 1963.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Korenchevsky, V.: Physiological and Pathological Aging. Hafner, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Krebs, E., Hartman, E. and Thiebaut, F.: Un cas familial de syndrome de sclerodermie avec cataracte, troubles endocriniens et neurovegetatifs associes. Rev. Neurol. 53:606, 1930. Addendum in Rev. Neurol. 54: 121, 1930.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lapiere, S. Syndrome de Werner. Arch. Belges Derm. Syph. 9: 315, 1953.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Learner, N., Day, H.J., Weiss, L. and Di-George, A.: Chromosomes in Werner’s syndrome. Lancet, 1: 536, 1962.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lerman, S.: Cataracts. Thomas, Springfield, ill., 1963.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lloyd, C.W.: The ovaries, in Textbook of Endocrinology, 3rd Ed., ed. by Williams, R.H., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1962, p. 446.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Louw, A.: Rothmund-Werner’s disease. A case with internal frontal hyperostosis. Acta Med. Scand. 121: 333, 1945.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Louw, A.: To tlfaelde of Rothmund-Werner’s sygdom (Two cases of Werner’s syndrome). Nord. Med. 37: 2067, 1946.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Maeder, G.: Le syndrome de Rothmund et le syndrome de Werner. (Etude clinique et diagnostique). Ann. Ocul. 182: 809, 1949.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Matras, A. and Kohler, J.: Ein Beitrag zum Werner-Syndrome. Wien. Med. Wschr. 106: 437, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    McKusick, V.: Medial Genetics 1962. J. Chron. Dis. 16: 600, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Miller, M.: Diabetes associated with acromegaly, hyperadrenocortecism, hemochromatosis, pancreatitis, pancreatectomy, and cancer, in Diabetes, ed. by Williams, R.H., Hoeber, New York, 1960, p. 710.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Minami, M., Kimura, S. and Matsumoto, K.: Two cases of cataract by endocrine disturbance. J. Clin. Ophthal. (Tokyo) (Ganka Rinsho Iho) 11: 758, 1957.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Minton, L.R. and Bounds, G.W., Jr.: Ectodermal side effects of MER-29. Ophthalmologic findings in patients with ectodermal side effects while on MER-29. Amer. J. Ophthal. 55: 787, 1963.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mogensen, E.F.: Konveksitetsmeningeon hos en patient med Werner’s syndrome. Ugesk. Laeger. 155: 18, 1953.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Monier-Vinard and Barbot, E.M.: Sclerodermie et cataracte. Syndrome familial. Bull. Soc. Med. Hop. Paris, 52: 708, 1928.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Monjukowa, N.: Zur Frage uber den Zusammenhang der Linsentrubungen mit Storrungen de inneren sekretion. Russki Opth. Zh. 2:174, 1923, and Klin, Mbl. Augache. 70: 785, 1923.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Motulsky, A.G. and Gartler, S.M.: Consanguinity and marriage. The Practitioner, 183: 170, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Motulsky, A.G., Schultz, A. and Priest, J.: Werner’s syndrome: chromsomes, genes, and the ageing process. Lancet 1: 160, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mueller, M.N., Sorenson, L.B., Stranjord, N. and Kappas, A.: Alkaptonuria and ochronotic arthopathy. Med. Clin. N. Amer. 49: 101, 1965.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mueller, L. and Anderson, B.: Werner’s syndrome: a survey based on two cases. Acta. med. Scand. Suppl 283: 3, 1953.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Neel, J.V., Kodani, M., Bruer, R. and Anderson, R.C.: The incidence of consanguineous matings in Japan. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 1: 156, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Oppenheimer, B.S. and Kugel, V.H.: Werner’s syndrome - a heredo-familial disorder with scleroderma, bilateral juvenile cataract, precocious graying of hair and endocrine stigmatization. Trans. Ass. Amer. Physicians, 49: 358, 1934.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Oppenheimer, G.S. and Kugel, V.H.: Werner’s syndrome: report of the first necropsy and of findings in a new case. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 202: 629, 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ostensjo, B.: Werner’s syndrome. Progeria genitodystrophicum. Acta dermatovener. 33: 497, 1953.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Paulsen, C.A.: The testes, in Textbook of Endocrinology. 3rd Ed. ed. by Williams, R.H., W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1962, p. 395.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pearch, L. and Brown, W.H.: Hereditary premature senescence of the rabbit. I. Chronic form: general features. II. Acute form: general features. J. Exp. Med. 111: 485; 505, 1960.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pentz, E.I., Moss, W.T. and Denko, C.W.: Factors influencing taurine excretion in human subjects. J. Clin. Endocr. 19: 1126, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Perloff, J.K. and Phelps, E.T.: A review of Werner’s syndrome, with a report of the second autopsied case. Ann. Intern. Med. 48: 1205, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Peterson, R.E. and Wyngaarden, J.B.: The miscible pool and turnover rate of hydrocortisone in man. J. Clin. Invest. 35: 552, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Petrohelos, M.: Werner’s syndrome: a survey of three cases, with review of the literature. Amer. J. Ophthal. 56: 941, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pomeranz, M. M.: Werner’s syndrome - a case report. Radiology, 51: 521, 1948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Reed, R., Seville, R.H. and Tattersall, R.N.: Werner’s syndrome. Brit. J. Dermat. 65: 165, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rogers, A.S.: Werner’s syndrome. Report of a case with unusual complications. J. Florida Med. Ass. 46: 436, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rothmund, A.: Uber Kataract in Verbindung mit einer eigentumlichen Hautdegeneration. Arch. f. Ophthal. 14: 158, 1868.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rud, E.: Werner’s syndrome in three siblings. Acta Opthal. 34: 255, 1956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Russo, A.: Sindrome genito-sclerodermica e cataratta (Morbo di Rothmund). Ann. Ottal. 62: 646, 1934.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sainton, P. and Manou, H.: Hyperthyroidisme provoque par la thyroxine synthetique chez un malade atteint d’un syndrome pluriglandulaire avec sclerodermie et cataracte. Bull. Soc. Med. Hop. Paris, 51: 1685, 1927.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Samols, E. and Bilkus, D.: A comparison of insulin immunoassays. Proc. Exp. Biol. Med. 115: 79, 1964.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sannicandro, G.: Sindrome di Rothmund con calcificazioni cutanee e sclerodermia progressiva. Loro rapporti con le lesioni delle paratiroidi. Arch. Ital. Derm. 11: 88, 1935.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Scarpa, J.B. and Bur, G.E.: Sindrome de Rothmund-Werner: considerations clinicas y etiologicas. Med. Panamer 10: 213, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schott, J. and Dann, S.: Werner’s syndrome, a report of two cases. New Engl. J. Med. 240: 641, 1949.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schultheisz, E. and Schultheisz, F.: Zwei Falle von Wernersyndrom. Wien. Klin. Wschr. 68: 855, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schwank, R., Stava, Z., Tesar, 0. and Dvorak, L.: Pripad Wernerova syndrome (A case of Werner’s syndrome). Ceskoslov. Derm. 28: 365, 1953.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Selye, H., Strebele, R., and Mikulaj, L.: A progeria-like syndrome produced by dihydrotachysterol and its prevention by methyltestosterone and ferric dextran. J. Amer. Geriat. Soc. 11: 1, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Setlow, R.B. and Carrier, W.L.: The disappearance of thymine dimers from DNA: an error-correcting mechanism. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S. 51: 226, 1964.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sheets, R.F.: Werner’s syndrome (Progeria of the adult). Amer. Practit. 1: 300, 1950.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Simon, E.R. and Ways, P.: Incubation hemolysis and red cell metabolism in acanthocytosis. J. Clin. Invest. 43: 1311, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Simpson, N.E.: Multifactorial inheritance. A possible hypothesis for diabetes. Diabetes 13: 462, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Smith, J.M.: Review lectures on senescence. I. The causes of ageing. Proc. Roy. Soc. (Biol.) 157, 1962.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Smith, R.C., Winer, L.H. and Martel, S.: Werner’s syndrome-report of two cases. Arch. Derm. 71: 197, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Sourreil and Sarrat: Syndrome de Werner. Bull. Soc. Franc. Derm. Syph. 63: 207, 1956.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Steinberg, A.G.: Methodology in human genetics. J. Med. Ed. 34: 315, 1959.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Stojanov, P.K. and Bajdekov, B.: On a limited symptomatology (Bulgarian). Savr. Med. 10: 111, 1959.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Sulzberger, M.B.: Dyshormonal dermatosis (Werner’s syndrome). (Scleroderma, poikiloderma, bilateral juvenile cataract, precocious graying of hair, pluriglandular dysfunction). Arch. Derm. Syph. 36: 1256, 1937.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Szafran, L: Zacma wzwiazku ze schorzeniami skory (Cataract due to skin diseases). Klinika Oczna (Acta Ophthal. Polonica). 31: 267, 1961.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Szondy, G.: Werner syndroma (Hungarian). Borgyogy. Vener. Szemle 13: 94, 1959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Tanner, J.M.: Growth at Adolescence. 2nd Ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1962, p. 192.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Teulires, J. and Chabot, J.: A propos d’un cas de maladie de Werner. Bull. Soc. Ophthal. Franc. 4: 201, 1950.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Thannhauser, S.J.: Werner’s syndrome (progeria of the adult) and Rothmunds syndrome: two types of closely related heredofamilial atrophic dermatosis with juvenile cataracts and endocrine features. A critical study with five new cases. Ann. Intern. Med. 23: 559, 1945.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Upton, A.C.: Ionizing radiation and the aging process: a review. J. Gerontol. 12: 306, 1957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Valero, A. and Gellei, B.: Retinitis pigmentosa, hypertension and uraemia in Werner’s syndrome. Report of a case with necropsy findings. Brit. Med. J. 2: 351, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Von Arady, K.: Uber einige seltenere Symptome der Sklerodermie. Z. Klin. Med. 106: 406, 1927.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Vossius, A.: Zwei Falle von Katarakt im Verbindung mit Sklerodermie. Z. Augenh. 43: 640, 1920.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Waxman, S.H., Kelley, V.C., and Motulsky, A.G.: Adrenal function studies in Werner’s syndrome. Clin. Res. 9: 102, 1961 (Abstract).Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Werner, 0. Uber Katarakt in Verbindung mit Sklerodermie. (Doctoral dissertation, Kiel University). Schmidt and Klaunig, Kiel, 1904.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wettler, H.: Uber ein Fall von Wernerschem Syndrome. Opthalmologica 121: 172, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wilber, I.E.: Werner’s syndrome. J. Amer. Med. Wom. Ass. 15: 584, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Wilkins, L.: The influence of the endocrine glands upon growth and development, in Textbook of Endocrinology, 3rd Ed., ed. by Williams, R.H., W.B., Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, 1962, P. 908.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Williams, D.I.: Werner’s syndrome. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 42: 572, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Winer, N.J.: Hamilton-Schwartz tet and hyperparathyroidism in various diseases. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 202: 642, 1941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Wolfram, G., Priegnitz, F. and Wagner, H.J.: Zum Werner-Syndrome (On Werner’s syndrome). Deut. Med. Wschr. 84: 2125, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Worzel, M.H., Newman, J., and Toczek, H. A.: Werner’s syndrome (A rare and most unusual genodermatosis). J. Newark Beth Israel Hosp. 15: 40, 1964.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Zucker-Franklin, D.: Personal communication.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles J. Epstein
    • 1
  • George M. Martin
    • 2
  • Amelia L. Schultz
    • 3
  • Arno G. Motulsky
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Chemical BiologyNational Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic DiseaseBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Medical GeneticsDepartment of Medicine University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations