Heat Transfer with the Helium II Superfluid Film
The use of liquid helium as a fluid for heat transfer has increased as a consequence of the reduction in cost of the liquid and the necessity for operating equipment such as superconducting magnets at temperatures less than 13°K. The heat transfer properties of liquid helium change drastically at temperatures less than the superfluid transition temperature, T λ = 2.172°K . In addition to the increased heat transport in the bulk fluid for T < T λ , a thin adsorbed film of helium forms over all surfaces. Because of the high mobility in the film, its presence can represent a large heat leak into a system and can also provide cooling to a system.
KeywordsHeat Transfer Heat Transport Volume Flow Rate Heater Power Film Flow
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