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Techniques for Determining Average Density and Related Parameters in Two-Phase Cryogenic Flow Systems

  • K. D. WilliamsonJr.
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 17)

Abstract

Two-phase flow is difficult to avoid in cryogenic systems. Each time such systems are cooled to operating temperatures, two-phase flow is encountered unless the system pressure is maintained well above the critical pressure. In addition, many applications involve the low-pressure vaporization of cryogenic liquids in heat exchangers which must operate continuously in the two-phase region. In order to design such systems, a knowledge of the complicated distributions of gas and liquid must be known so that hydrodynamic and heat transfer analyses can be made. Both gross and detailed structure measurements are of interest. These include the average density, fluid quality (mass of vapor/total mass of fluid), void fraction (volume occupied by the gas/total volume), void distribution, flow regimes, and local velocities. In this paper various techniques for investigating these items will be discussed.

Keywords

Void Fraction Annular Flow Stainless Steel Pipe Cryogenic System Void Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. D. WilliamsonJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaLos AlamosUSA

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