Techniques for Determining Average Density and Related Parameters in Two-Phase Cryogenic Flow Systems
Two-phase flow is difficult to avoid in cryogenic systems. Each time such systems are cooled to operating temperatures, two-phase flow is encountered unless the system pressure is maintained well above the critical pressure. In addition, many applications involve the low-pressure vaporization of cryogenic liquids in heat exchangers which must operate continuously in the two-phase region. In order to design such systems, a knowledge of the complicated distributions of gas and liquid must be known so that hydrodynamic and heat transfer analyses can be made. Both gross and detailed structure measurements are of interest. These include the average density, fluid quality (mass of vapor/total mass of fluid), void fraction (volume occupied by the gas/total volume), void distribution, flow regimes, and local velocities. In this paper various techniques for investigating these items will be discussed.
KeywordsVoid Fraction Annular Flow Stainless Steel Pipe Cryogenic System Void Distribution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.J. R. Bartlit and D. H. Lester, Report LA-DC-9706, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (1966).Google Scholar
- 2.D. F. Shook, NASA Tech. Note TN-D-2787, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (1965).Google Scholar
- 4.W. R. Killian and J. O. Simpson, in: Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 5, Springer Science+Business Media New York (1960), p. 505.Google Scholar
- 5.W. H. McAdams, Heat Transmission, 3rd edition, McGraw—Hill, New York (1954).Google Scholar
- 6.R. C. Hendricks and R. R. Sharp, NASA Tech. Note TN-D-2290, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (1964).Google Scholar
- 7.K. J. Baumeister, R. C. Hendricks, and T. D. Hamill, NASA Tech. Note TN-D-3226, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio (1966).Google Scholar