X-Ray Diffraction Techniques in Analysis and Prediction of Failure
When it was found that X-ray diffraction (XRD) was capable of unraveling the atomic arrangement in solids, it aroused an enthusiasm which has never dwindled. Crystallographers use the method with success to define the idealized structure, but knowledge about the deviations from this perfection is equally important, particularly to the materials scientist.
What the engineer calls “stress” is know to the materials scientist as a change of lattice dimensions; “failure” means a separation of atoms in the lattice or in the intercrystalline material. The structural status of a solid, as revealed by X-ray diffraction, is therefore capable of measuring stress, testing strength, predicting the time and location of failure, and diagnosing its cause.
In this chapter the underlying concepts of XRD techniques, the commonly used instrumentation, applications, limitations, and pitfalls will be reviewed and illustrated by a few representative examples.
KeywordsBragg Angle Residual Stress Measurement Polycrystalline Aggregate Plane Vector Bragg Equation
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