Environmentally Assisted Failures in Ordnance Components
The production of ordnance equipment in common with private industry utilizes a wide variety of manufacturing processes including: forging, heat treatment, electroplating, welding, machining, etc. Each of these processes has the propensity to cause material problems which may lead to premature failure. The failure analyst must, therefore, be familiar with the processing history of a component as well as details of a failure incident and the service environment.
To demonstrate the interaction between failure analyses and detrimental environments, both in manufacturing and in service, we have restricted this chapter to a few examples involving environmentally associated failures. Case histories are presented dealing with the following type failures in steel: liquid metal embrittlement, hydrogen embrittlement, pitting corrosion and stress corrosion, which have occurred in weapon components. These cases are reviewed in some detail to convey the techniques utilized in arriving at the reason(s) for failure. Implementation of the recommendations subsequent to an analysis, demonstrates how failures, although unfortunate, can serve to improve a product and refine a design or process.
KeywordsHigh Strength Steel Stress Corrosion Failure Analysis Hydrogen Embrittlement Transverse Crack
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Rostoker, W., McCaughey, J.M. and Markus, H., Embrittlement by Liquid Metals, New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1960.Google Scholar
- 3.Breyer, N.N. and Gordon, P., Third International Conference on the Strength of Metals and Alloys, Conference Proceedings, Cambridge, England: The Institute of Metals, London, 1973, p. 493.Google Scholar
- 5.Hydrogen Damage Failures“, in Metals Handbook, Vol. 10, Failure Analysis and Prevention, 8th Ed., Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1975, p. 230Google Scholar
- 6.Colangelo, V.J. and Heiser, F.A., Analysis of Metallurgical Failures, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974.Google Scholar
- 7.Croucher, T.R., “Delayed Static Failure”, in Source Book in Failure Analysis, Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1974, p. 20.Google Scholar
- 8.Hydrogen Damage Failures“, in Metals Handbook, Vol. 10, Failure Analysis and Prevention, 8th Ed., Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1975, p. 230.Google Scholar
- 9.Read, H.J., Hydrogen Embrittlement in Metal Finishing, New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1961.Google Scholar
- 10.Daniels, W., “A Study of Thermal Relief After Chromium Plating”, Watervliet Arsenal, NY, Report No. WVT-6735, Nov. 1967.Google Scholar
- 11.Fontana, M.G. and Greene, N.D., Corrosion Engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.Google Scholar
- 12.Tauscher, S.G. and Thornton, P.A., “Pitting Corrosion of the 152mm Firing Probe”, to be published as Watervliet Arsenal Technical Report.Google Scholar
- 13.Uhlig, H.H., Corrosion and Corrosion Control, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1963.Google Scholar
- 14.Fontana, M.G. and Greene, N.D., Corrosion Engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.Google Scholar
- 15.Uhlig, H.H., Corrosion and Corrosion Control, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1963.Google Scholar
- 16.Stress Corrosion Cracking“, in Metals Handbook, Vol. 10, Failure Analysis and Prevention, 8th Ed., Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1975, p. 205.Google Scholar
- 17.Colangelo, V.J. and Ferguson, M.S., “Susceptibility of Gun Steels to Stress Corrosion Cracking”, Watervliet Arsenal, NY, Report No. WVT-7012, Nov. 1970.Google Scholar
- 18.Colangelo, V.J. and Ferguson, M.S., “The Role of the Strain Handening Exponent in Stress Corrosion Cracking of a High Strength Steel”, Corrosion, 25, 1969, pp. 509–14.Google Scholar
- Heiser, F.A. and DeFries, R.S., “Temper Embrittlement in Steel for Thick-Walled Gun Tubes”, J. Metals, 27, 1975, p. 8.Google Scholar
- Holloman, J.H., “Temper Brittleness”, Trans. ASM, 36, 1946, pp 473–542.Google Scholar