Establishment and Growth of Parasites

  • Leslie H. Chappell
Part of the Tertiary Level Biology book series (TLB)


A parasite must not only be successful in reaching the next host in its particular life-cycle, but must also establish itself, grow and mature if reproductive success is to be achieved. Sexual maturity will normally occur only in the final host. In the intermediate host (or hosts, should the life-cycle be indirect), the parasite may grow in size and may increase its numbers dramatically by asexual multiplication. Alternatively it may develop into a quiescent stage, such as the metacercaria of the Digenea, awaiting transmission to the next host, either by ingestion or death of the intermediate host.


Bile Salt Intermediate Host Hydatid Cyst Cyst Wall Alimentary Canal 
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Further Reading

  1. Bannister, L. H. (1977) “The invasion of red cells by Plasmodium”, in Parasite Invasion, Symposia of the British Society for Parasitology, 15, editors A. E. R. Taylor and R. Muller, 27–55.Google Scholar
  2. Barrett, J. (1977) “Energy metabolism and infection in helminths”, in Parasite Invasion, Symposia of the British Society for Parasitology, 15, editors A. E. R. Taylor and R. Muller, 121–144.Google Scholar
  3. Croll, N. and Matthews, B. E. (1977) Biology of Nematodes, Blackie and Son.Google Scholar
  4. Crompton, D. W. T. (1973) “The sites occupied by some parasitic helminths in the alimentary tract of vertebrates.” Biological Reviews, 48, 27–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Erasmus, D. A. (1972) The Biology of Trematodes, Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  6. Holmes, J. C. (1973) “Site selection by parasitic helminths: interspecific interactions, site segregation, and their importance to the development of helminth communities.” Canadian Journal of Zoology, 51, 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lackie, A. M. (1975) “The activation of infective stages of endoparasites of vertebrates” Biological Reviews, 50, 285–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, D. L. and Atkinson, H. J. (1976) The Physiology of Nematodes,2nd edition, Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  9. Llewellyn, J. (1976) “Behaviour of monogeneans”, in Behavioural Aspects of Parasite Transmission, Linnean Society, editors E. U. Canning and C. A. Wright, 19–30.Google Scholar
  10. Otto, G. F. (1966) “Development of parasitic stages of nematodes”, in Biology of Parasites, editor E. J. L. Soulsby, Academic Press, 85–99.Google Scholar
  11. Read, C. P. and Kilejian, A. Z. (1969) “Circadian migratory behaviour of a cestode symbiote in the rat host.” Journal of Parasitology, 55, 574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Roberts, L. S. (1961) “The influence of population density on patterns and physiology of growth in Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) in the definitive host.” Experimental Parasitology, 11, 332–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rogers, W. P. (1966) “Exsheathment and hatching mechanisms in helminths”, in Biology of Parasites, editor E. J. L. Soulsby, Academic Press, 33–40.Google Scholar
  14. Schad, G. A. (1963) “Niche diversification in a parasite species flock. ”Nature, 198, 404–406.Google Scholar
  15. Smyth, J. D. (1969) The Physiology of Cestodes,Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
  16. Smyth, J. D. (1969) “Parasites as biological models.” Parasitology, 59, 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Smyth, J. D. (1976) Introduction to Animal Parasitology,2nd edition, Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  18. Smyth, J. D. and Haslewood, G. A. D. (1963) “The biochemistry of bile as a factor determining host specificity in intestinal parasites, with particular reference to Echinococcus granulosus.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 113, 234–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ulmer, M. J. (1971) “Site finding behaviour in helminths in intermediate and definitive hosts”, in Ecology and Physiology of Parasites, editor A. M. Fallis, Adam Hilger Ltd., 123–160.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© L. H. Chappell 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie H. Chappell
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AberdeenUK

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