All organisms have evolved defence mechanisms for protection against invasion and establishment by micro-organisms and by metazoan parasites. Although ideally we should include the viruses and bacteria in our current discussion, space precludes such a full consideration. Before discussing immunity to parasites, it will be necessary to outline, in the briefest manner, the components of the defence systems—primarily of mammals.
KeywordsProtective Immunity Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Helminth Infection Antigenic Variation Echinococcus Granulosus
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