Disposable Solid State Oxygen Sensor

  • H. P. Kimmich
  • M. H. Kuypers
  • J. M. L. Engels
  • H. G. R. Maas
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 159)


Since the description of the membrane-covered polarographic cell by Clark in 1956, oxygen polarography has been refined such that almost every physiological problem of O2 measurement can now be solved with great accuracy. Measuring accuracy of good electrodes is equal or better than 0.1 kPa over 10 h (e.g. Kimmich and Kreuzer, 1969) and allows detection of physiological phenomena with an accuracy of approximately 1 Pa over short periods of time (15 min.), such as in diffusion measurements (de Koning et al, 1981). In the gas phase, measurement is fast enough to continously follow alveolar changes breath by breath, with electronic acceleration (Kimmich et al, 1973) even during exercise. Introduction of large scale, continuous oxygen monitoring in the hospital is, nevertheless, not yet a fact. Whereas trahscutaneous O2 measurement has gained considerable ground in neonatal monitoring (Eberhard and Mindt, 1977; and Huch and Huch, 1981) and is also slowly penetrating adult monitoring (Huch et al, 1977; and Goeckenjan and Strasser, 1977), continuous intravascular assessment of PO2 is only used occasionally in the hospital. Also alternative methods, such as the measurement of PaO2 in an arterio-venous shunt (Jank et al, 1977) have not yet brought the evisaged break-through. This has several reasons
  • Commercial fabrication of sophisticated O2 sensors at a price allowing single use (disposible catheters) has not yet been realized. The commercial versions, available so far, are the incorporation of simple types, allowing acceptable assessment of O2.

  • Maintenance and sterilization of conventional electrodes is relatively complicated and contradictory to clinical use.

  • Sane progress has recently been achieved to prevent intra-arterial thrombotic formations and fibrine deposition (Nilsson et al, 1981) but the problem is not yet entirely solved and may include a severe risk for the patient, either by thrombus itself, or be incorrect assessment of the O2 values. Electrodes with thin membranes (fast electrodes) are able to detect such dangerous situations in an early state (Kreuzer et al, 1980).


Extracorporeal Circulation Flow Dependency Cathode Area Cathode Anode Integrate Circuit Technology 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. P. Kimmich
    • 1
  • M. H. Kuypers
    • 2
  • J. M. L. Engels
    • 2
  • H. G. R. Maas
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of NijmegenNijmegenNL
  2. 2.Honeywell and PhilipsMedical Electronics GroupBestNL
  3. 3.Philips, Research LaboratoryEindhovenNL

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