Mechanics of Wirebond Interconnects

  • Michael Pecht
  • Pradeep Lall


This chapter discusses the thermomechanical considerations in the manufacture and design of wirebond interconnects and presents guidelines for design of reliable wirebond interconnects. This section gives an overview of wirebonding technology, including bond types and representative geometries, typical metallurgical systems, considerations in wire selection, common methods of wirebond interconnect evaluation, and a list of observed wirebond failures. Section 22.2 discusses thermomechanical considerations during wirebond manufacture. Thermomechanical considerations concerning bonding process and common bonding problems are discussed, including cratering, pad cleanliness, intermetallic formation, metallization problems, pad lifting, bonding parameters, and geometries. The common post-bond test techniques used to assess the effect of thermomechanical stresses on bond performance are then discussed. Section 22.3 discusses thermomechanical considerations during the wirebond operation, including potential failure mechanisms and physics of failure models. Based on thermomechanical considerations during manufacture and use, outlined in Section 22.2 and 22.3, guidelines for design of reliable wirebond interconnects are presented in Section 22.4.


Temperature Cycling Wire Bond Aluminum Wire Aluminum Metallization Ball Bond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kurtz, J., D. Cousens, and M. Dufour, “Copper Ball Bonding,” 34th IEEE Electronic Components Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, May 1984, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hirota, J., K. Machida, T. Okuda, M. Shimotomai, and R. Kawanaka, “The Development of Copper Wire Bonding for Plastic Molded Semiconductor Packages,” 35th Electronic Component Conference Proceedings, Washington, DC, 1985, pp. 116–121.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atsumi, K., T. Ando, M. Kobayashi, O. Usuda, “Ball Bonding Technique, For Copper Wire,” 36th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference, Seattle, Washington, 1986, pp. 312–317.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Levine, L., and M. Schaeffer, “Copper Ball Bonding,” Semiconductor International, August 1986, pp. 126–129.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Onuki, J., M. Koizumi, and I. Araki, “Investigation on Reliability of Copper Ball Bonds to Aluminum Electrodes,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-10, 1987, pp. 550–555.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Riches, S. T., and N. R. Stockham, “Ultrasonic Ball/Wedge Bonding of Fine Cu Wire,” Proc. 6th European Microelectronic Conference (ISHM), Bournemouth, England, June 1987, pp. 27–33.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hermansky, V., “Degradation of Thin Film Silver-Aluminum Contacts,” Fifth Czech. Conference on Electronics and Physics, Czechoslovakia, October 1972, p. IIC-11.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shukla, R., and J. Singh-Deo, “Reliability Hazards of Silver Aluminum Substrate Bonds in MOS Devices,” 20th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, CA, 1982, pp. 122–127.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jellison, J. L., “Susceptibility of Microwelds in Hybrid Microcircuits to Corrosion Degradation,” 13th Ann. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1975, pp. 70–79.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kamigo, A., and H. Igarashi, “Silver Wire Ball Bonding and Its Ball/Pad Interface Characteristics,” 35th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference,Washington, DC, 1985, pp. 91–97.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    James, K., “Reliability Study of Wirebonds to Silver Plated Surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Parts,Hybrids, and Packaging, PHP-13, 1977, pp. 419–425.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hall, P. M., N. T. Panousis, and P. R. Manzel, “Strength of Gold Plated Copper Leads on Thin Film Circuits Under Accelerated Aging,” IEEE Trans. Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, PHP-11(3), 1975, pp. 202–205.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pitt, V. A., and C. R. S. Needes, “Thermosonic Gold Wire Bonding to Copper Conductors,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-5, 1982, pp. 435–440.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lang, B., and S. Pinamaneni, “Thermosonic Gold Wire Bonding to PreciousMetal-Free Copper Leadframe,” 38th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 1988, pp. 546–551.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fister, J., J. Breedis, and J. Winter, “Gold Leadwire Bonding of Unplated C194,” 20th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference,San Diego, CA, 1982, pp. 249–253.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harman, G. G., Reliability and Yield Problems of Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Technical Monograph of the ISHM, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harman, G. G., and C. L. Wilson, “Materials Problems Affecting Reliability and Yield of Wire Bonding in VLSI Devices,” Proc. 1989 Materials Research Society, Electronic Packaging Materials Science IV, Vol. 154, San Diego, CA, 1989; quoted from ref. 16.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ravi, K. V., and R. White, “Reliability Improvement in 1-mil Aluminum Wire Bonds for Semiconductors,” Final Report, Motorola SPD, NASA Contract NAS8–26636, December 6, 1971.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ravi, K. V., and E. Philosky, “The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Fine Diameter Alumina-1% Si Wire,” Metallurgical Transactions, 2, March 1971, pp. 712–717.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Olsen, D. R., and K. L. James, “Evaluation of the Potential Reliability Effects of Ambient Atmosphere on Aluminum—Copper Bonding in Semiconductor Products,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology,CHMT-7, 1984, pp. 357–362.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thomas, R. E., V. Winchell, K. James, and T. Scharr, “Plastic Outgassing Induced Wirebond Failure,” 27th Annu. Proc. IEEE Electronics Components Conference, Arlington, VA, May 1977, pp. 182–187.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nesheim, J. K., “The Effects of Ionic and Organic Contamination on Wirebond Reliability,” Proc. 1984 Int. Symposium on Microelectronics (ISHM), Dallas, TX, 1984, pp. 70–78.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Thomas, S., and H. M. Berg, “Micro-Corrosion of Al—Cu Bonding Pads,” 23d Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, Orlando, FL, March 1985, pp. 153–158.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Totta, P., “Thin Films: Interdiffusion And Reactions,” J. Vacuum Science and Technology, 14, 1977, pp. 26.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zahavi, J., M. Rotel, H. C. Huang, and P. A. Totta, “Corrosion Behavior of Al—Cu Alloy Thin Films in Microelectronics,” Proc. Int. Congress on Metallic Corrosion, Toronto, Canada, June 1984, pp. 311–316.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Baker, J. D., B. J. Nation, A. Achari, and G. C. Waite, “On the Adhesion of Palladium Silver Conductors Under Heavy Aluminum Wire Bonds,” Int. J. Hybrid Microelectronics, 1981, pp. 155–160.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Philosky, E. V., and K. V. Ravi, “On Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Metallization and Their Relationship to Reliability Problems,” IEEE 11th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics, 1973, pp. 33–40.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pecht, M., A. Dasgupta, and P. Lall, “A Failure Prediction Model For Wire Bonds,” Proc. 1989 Int. Microelectronic Symposium,ISHM, 1989.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Winchell, V. H., “An Evaluation of Silicon Damage Resulting from Ultrasonic Wire Bonding,” 14th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1976, pp. 98–107.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Winchell, V. H., and H. M. Berg, “Enhancing Ultrasonic Bond Development,” IEEE Trans. Components,Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-1, 1978, pp. 211–219.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Koyama, H., H. Shiozaki, I. Okumura, S. Mizugashira, H. Higuchi, and T. Ajiki, “A Bond Failure Wire Crater in Surface Mount Device,” 26th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics, Monterey, California, 1988, pp. 59–63.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kale, V. S., “Control of Semiconductor Failures Caused by Cratering of Bond Pads,” Proc. 1979 Int. Microelectronics Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, 1979, pp. 311–318.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mori, S., H. Yoshida, and N. Uchiyama, “The Development of New Copper Ball Bonding-Wire,” 38th Electronics Components Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 1988, pp. 539–545.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koch, T., W. Richling, J. Whitlock, and D. Hall, “A Bond Failure Mechanism,” Int. Reliability Physics Symposium 1986, Anaheim, CA, 1986, pp. 55–60.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ching, T. B., and W. H. Schreon, “Bond Pad Structure Reliability,” International Reliability Physics Symposium, Monterey, CA, 1988, pp. 64–70.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pramanik, D., and A. N. Saxena, VLSI Metallization and its Alloys, Part I,Solid State Technology, 1983, pp. 127–133.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Umemura, E., H. Onoda, and S. Madokoro, “High Reliable Al—Si Alloy/Si Contacts by Rapid Thermal Sintering,” 26th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, Monterey, CA, 1988, pp. 230–233.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clatterbaugh, G.V., J. A. Weiner, and H. K. Charles, “Gold—Aluminum Intermetallics: Ball Bond Shear Testing and Thin Film Reaction Couples,” IEEE Trans. Components,Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-7, 1984, pp. 349–356.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Horsting, C. W., “Purple Plague and Gold Purity,” 10th Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, CA, 1972, pp. 155–158.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clatterbaugh, G. V., J. A. Weiner, H. K. Charles, and B. M. Romenesko, “Gold—Aluminum Intermetallics: Ball Bond Shear Testing and Thin Film Reaction Couples,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-7, 1984, pp. 349–356.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McDonald, N. C., and P. W. Palmberg, “Application of Auger Electron Spectroscopy for Semiconductor Technology,” Int. Electron Device Meeting, Washington, DC, October 1971, pp. 42.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    McDonald, N. C., and G. E. Riach, “Thin Film Analysis for Processes Evaluation,” Electronic Packaging and Production, 1973, pp. 50–56.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    James, H. K., “Resolution of the Gold Wire Grain Growth Failure Mechanism in Plastic Encapsulated Microelectronic Devices,” IEEE Trans. Components,Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-3, September 1980, pp. 370374.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wakabayashi, S., A. Murata, and N. Wakobauashi, “Effects of Grain Refiners in Gold Deposits on Aluminum Wire-Bond Reliability,” Plating and Surface Finishing, V, 1982, pp. 63–68.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evans, K. L., T. T. Guthrie, and R. G. Hays, “Investigation of the Effect of Thallium on Gold/Aluminum Wirebond Reliability,” Proc. ISTFA, Los Angeles, CA, 1984, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Endicott, D. W., H. K. James, and F. Nobel, “Effects of Gold Plating Additives on Semiconductor Wire Bonding,” Plating and Surface Finishing, V, 1981, pp. 58–61.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    English, A. T., and J. L. Hokanson, “Studies of Bonding Mechanisms and Failure Modes in Thermocompression Bonds of Gold Plated Leads to Ti—Au Metallized Substrates,” 9th Annu. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1971, pp. 178–186.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hund, T. D., and P. V. Plunkett, “Improving Thermosonic Gold Ball Reliability,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology,CHMT-8, 1985, pp. 446–456.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khan, M. M., T. S. Tarter, and H. Fatemi, “Aluminum Bond Pad Contamination by Thermal Outgassing of Organic Material from Silver Filled Epoxy Adhesives,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology,CHMT-10, 1987, pp. 586–592.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ahmad, S. S., “Impact of Residue on Al/Si Pads on Gold Bonding,” 38th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference Los Angeles, CA, 1987, pp. 534–538.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harman, G. G., and K. O. Leedy, “An Experimental Model of the Microelectronic Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Mechanism,” 10th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium,Las Vegas, NE, 1972, pp. 49–56.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hall, P. M., and J. M. Morabito, “Diffusion Problems in Microelectronics Packaging,” Thin Solid Films, 53, 1978, pp. 175–182.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Loo, M. C., and K. Su, “Attach of Large Dice With Big Glass in Multilayer Packages,” Hybrid Circuits (UK),No. 11, September 1986, pp. 8–11.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Huettner, D. J., and R. C. Sanwald, “The Effect of Cyanide Electrolysis Products on the Morphology and Ultrasonic Bondability of Gold, Plating and Surface Finishing,” August 1972, pp. 750–755.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Joshi, K. C., and R. C. Sanwald, “Annealing Behavior of Electrodeposited Gold Containing Entrapments,” J. Electronic Materials, 2(4), 1973, pp. 533–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shih, D. Y., and P. J. Ficalora, “The Reduction of AuAl Intermetallic Formation and Electromigration in Hydrogen Environments,” 16th Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, CA, 1978, pp. 268–272.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Newsome, J. L., R. G. Oswald, and W. R. Rodrigues de Miranda, “Metallurgical Aspects of Aluminum Wire Bonds to Gold Metallization,” 14th Annu. Proc. IEEE Electronics Components Conference, Las Vegas, NE, 1976, pp. 63–74.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Nehl, W., “Gold Wire Bonders For The Nineties,” Solid State Technology,June 1991, pp. 59–62.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    DiOrio, M., and T. Riesterer, “Gold Thermosonic Wire Bonding Technology in the 90s,” Electronics and Semiconductor Production and Packaging Conference; First Technical Conference on INTERNEPCON/Semiconductor, Thailand, December 1991.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Harman, George G., “Metallurgical Failure Modes of Wirebonds,” 12th Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, 1974, pp. 131–141.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ebel, G. H., “Failure Analysis Techniques Applied in Resolving Hybrid Microcircuit Reliability Problems,” 15th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics, Las Vega, NE, 1977, pp. 70–81.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hansen, M., “The Constitution of Binary Phase Diagrams,” 2d edn., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Philosky, E., “Design Limits When Using Gold Aluminum Bonds,” 9th Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1971, pp. 11–16.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Philosky, E., “Intermetallic Formation in Gold—Aluminum Systems,” Solid State Electronics, 13, 1970, pp. 1391–1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kidson, G. V., “Some Aspects of the Growth of Diffusion Layers in Binary Systems,” J. Nuclear Materials, 3(1), 1961, pp. 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kashiwabara, M., and S. Hattori, “Formation of Al—Au Intermetallic Compounds and Resistance Increase for Ultrasonic Al Wire Bonding,” Review of the Electrical Communication Laboratory, 17, 1969, pp. 1001–1013.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Philosky, E., “Purple Plague Revisited,” 8th Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1970, pp. 177–185.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Horowitz, S. J., J. J. Felton, D. J. Gerry, J. R. Larry, and R. M. Rosenberg, “Recent Developments in Gold Conductor Bonding Performance and Failure Mechanisms,” Solid State Technology, 22, March 1979, pp. 37–44.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pitt, V. A., C. R. S. Needes, and R. W. Johnson, “Ultrasonic Aluminum Wire Bonding to Copper Conductors,” Electronics Components Conference, 1981, pp. 18–23.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Funamizu, Y., and K. Watanabe, “Interdiffusion In The Aluminum—Copper System,” Trans. Japan Institute of Metals, 12, May 1971, pp. 147–152.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wallach, E. R., and G. J. Davies, “Mechanical Properties of Al—Cu Solid-Phase Welds,” Metals Technology, 4, April 1971, pp. 183–190.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gershinskii, A. E., B. I. Formin, E. J. Cherepov, and F. L. Edelman, Thin Solid Films, 42, 1977, pp. 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Campisano, S. U., E. Costanzo, F. Scaccianoce, and R. Cristofollini, Thin Solid Films, 52, June 1978, pp. 97–101.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnson, D. R., Plating in the Electronic Industry Symposium, American Electroplating Society Inc., 1973, pp. 272.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gaffney, J., “Internal Lead Fatigue Through Thermal Expansion in Semiconductor Devices,” IEEE Trans. Electronic Devices, ED-15, 1968, pp. 617.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Villela, F., and M. F. Nowakomski, “Thermal Excursion Can Cause Bond Problems,” 9th Annu. Proc. IEEE Reliability Physics Symposium, 1971, pp. 172–177.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ravi, K. V., and E. M. Philofsky, “Reliability Improvement of Wire Bonds Subjected to Fatigue Stresses,” 10th Annu. Proc. IEEE Reliability Physics Symposium, 1972, pp. 143–149.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Phillips, W. E., “Microelectronic Ultrasonic Bonding,” National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 400–2, 1974, pp. 80–86.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Volterra, E., and J. H. Gaines, Advanced Strength of Material, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hu, J. M., M. Pecht, and A. Dasgupta, “A Probabilistic Approach for Predicting Thermal Fatigue Life of Wirebonding in Microelectronics,” ASME J. Electronics Packaging, 113, 1991, pp. 275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jones, R. M., Mechanics of Composite Material, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Adams, C. N., “A Bonding Wire Failure Mode in Plastic Encapsulated Integrated Circuits,” IEEE 11th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics, 1973, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Forrest, N. H., “Reliability Aspects of Minute Amounts of Chlorine on Wire Bonds Exposed to Pre-seal Burn-in,” Int. J. Hybrid Microelectronics, 5, 1982, pp. 549–551.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Paulson, W. M., and R. P. Lorigan, “The Effect of Impurities on the Corrosion of Aluminum Metallization,” 14th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium,Las Vegas, NE, 1976, pp. 42–47.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Iannuzi, M., “Bias Humidity Performance and Failure Mechanisms of Non-Hermetic Aluminum SICs in an Environment Contaminated with C12,” 20th Annu. Proc. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, California, 1982, pp. 16–26.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dumoulin, P., J. P. Seurin, and P. Marce, “Metal Migrations Outside the Package During Accelerated Life Tests,” IEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-5(4), 1982, p. 479.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schafft, H. A., “Testing and Fabrication of Wirebond Electrical Connections—A Comprehensive Survey,” National Bureau of Standards, Technical Note 726, 1972.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ramsey, T. H., “Metallurgical Behavior of Gold Wire in Thermal Compression Bonding,” Solid State Technology, 16, 1973, pp. 43–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mantese, Joseph H., and William V Alcini, “Platinum Wire Wedge Bonding: A New IC and Microprocessor Interconnect,” J. Electronic Materials,17(4), 1988, pp. 285–289.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pinnel, M. R., and J. E. Bennett, “Mass Diffusion in Polycrystalline Copper/ Electrodeposited Gold Planar Couples,” Metallurgical Transactions, 3, July 1972, pp. 1989–1997.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Feinstein, L. G., and J. B. Bindell, “The Failure of Aged Cu–Au Thin Films by Kirkendall Porosity,” Thin Solid Films, 62, 1979, pp. 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Feinstein, L. G., and R. J. Pagano, “Degradation of Thermocompression Bonds to Ti–Cu–Au and Ti–Cu by Thermal Aging,” 29th Proc. Electronic Components Conference, Cherry Hill, NJ, 1979, pp. 346–354.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Harman, G. G., and C. A. Cannon, “The Microelectronic Wire Bond Pull Test, How to Use It, How to Abuse It,” IEEE Trans. Components,Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-1, September 1978, pp. 203–210.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Albers, J. H., “The Destructive Bond Pull Test,” NBS Special Publication, 1976, pp. 400–418.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ang, A. H., and W. H. Tang, Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning and Design, Wiley, New York, 1984.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    ASCE Committee on Fatigue and Fracture Reliability, “Fatigue Reliability,” J. Structural Division, ASCE, 108, No. ST1, 1982, pp. 1–104.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    ASME Handbook, Metal Properties, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Casey, G. J., and D. W. Endicott, “Control of Surface Quality of Gold Electrodeposits Utilizing Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Plating and Surface Finishing, 67(7), 1980, pp. 39–42.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chevez, C., Westinghouse Electric Corporation, private communication, 1991.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Coucoulas, A., “Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum Leads to Tantalum Thin Films,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIM E, 1966, pp. 587–589.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cunnigham, J. A., “Expanded Contacts and Interconnections to Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits,” Solid State Electronics, April 1965, pp. 735–745.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Devaney, J. R., “Failure Mechanisms in Active Device,” Electronic Materials Handbook, Vol. 1, ASM International, 1989.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ebel, G. H., J. A. Jeffery, and J. P. Farrell, “Wirebonding Reliability Techniques and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-5 (4), 1982, pp. 441–445.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Fuchs, H. O., and R. I. Stephens, Metal Fatigue in Engineering, Wiley, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gale, R. J., “Epoxy Degradation Induced Au—Al Intermetallic Void Formation in Plastic Encapsulated MOS Memories,” 22d Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, Las Vegas, NE, 1984, pp. 37–47.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gerling, W., “Electrical and Physical Characterization of Gold-Ball Bonds on Aluminum Layers,” 34th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference, New Orleans, LO, May 1984, pp. 13–20.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Harper, C. A. (ed.), Handbook of Components for Electronics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Harper, C. A. (ed.), Handbook of Materials and Processes for Electronics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hill, P., “Uniform Metal Evaporation,” Proc. Conf. Reliability of Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 2, Sect. 27, 1964, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hinton, E., and D. R. J. Owen, Finite Element Programming, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1977.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Howell, J. R., and J. W. Slemmons, “Evaluation of Thermocompression Bonding Processes,” presented to the 9th Welded Electric Packaging Association Symposium, Santa Monica, CA, 1964; Autonetics Report No. T4–240/3110, (13), March 1964, pp. 16, 19, 27, 28, 30.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kawanobe, T., K. Miyamoto, M. Sieno, and S. Shoji, “Bondability of Silver Plating on IC Leadframe,” 35th Proc. IEEE Electronic Components Conference, Washington, DC, 1985.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Khan, M. M., and H. Fatemi, “Gold Aluminum Bond Failure Induced by Halogenated Additives in Epoxy Molding Compounds,” Proc. 1986 Int. Symposium on Microelectronics (ISHM), Atlanta, GA, October 1986, pp. 420–427.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lall, P., D. Barker, A. Dasgupta, M. Pecht, and S. Whelan, “Practical Approaches to Microelectronic Package Reliability Prediction Modelling,” ISHM Proc., 1989, pp. 126–130.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lall, P., M. Pecht, and A. Dasgupta, “A Failure Prediction Model for Wire Bonds,” IHM Proc., 1989, pp. 607–612.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Langhaar, H. L., Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1962.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lee, J. D., “Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Damage Accumulation in Composite Laminate,” Computers and Structures, 15(3), 1982, pp. 335–350.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lin, R., E. Blackshear, and R. Serisky, “Moisture Induced Package Cracking in Plastic Encapsulated Surface Mount Components During Solder Reflow Process,” 26th IEEE Ann. Proc. Reliability Physics, 1988, pp. 83–89.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lipson, C., and J. Sheth, Statistical Design and Analysis of Engineering Experiments, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lum, R. M., and L. G. Feinstein, “Investigation of the Molecular Processes Controlling Corrosion Failure Mechanisms in Plastic Encapsulated Devices,” 30th Annu. Proc. IEEE Electronics Components Conference, San Francisco, CA, 1980, pp. 113–120.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Majni, G., and G. Ottaviani, “AuA1 Compound Formation by Thin Film Interactions,” J. Crystal Growth, 47, 1979, pp. 583–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Moore, Kevin D., “Interconnection Failures in Circuit Assemblies,” 38th Electronic Component Conference, Los Angeles, CA, pp. 521–526.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nelson, G. C., and P. H. Holloway, “Determination of the Low Temperature Diffusion of Chromium Through Gold Films by Ion Scattering Spectroscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy,” ASTM Special Technical Publication 596, Surface Analysis Techniques, 1976, pp. 68–77.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zienkiewicz, O. C., The Finite Element Method, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Onishi, M., and K. Fukumoto, “Diffusion Formation of Intermetallic Compounds on Au—Al Couples by Use of Evaporated Al Films,” Jap. J. Met. Soc., 1974, pp. 38.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Panousis, N. T., and H. B. Bonham, “Bonding Degradation in Tantalum Nitride Chromium—Gold Metallization System,” 11th Annu. Proc. IEEE Reliability Physics Symposium, 1973, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Freudenthal, A. M., “Physical and Statistical Aspects of Fatigue,” Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 4, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1956, pp. 116–159.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Plunkett, P. V., and J. F. Dalporto, “Low Temperature Void Formation in Gold Aluminum Contacts,” 32d Annu. Proc. IEEE Electronics Components Conference,San Diego, CA, 1982, pp. 421–427.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Polcari, S. M., and J. J. Bowe, “Evaluation of Non-destructive Tensile Testing,” Report No. DOT-TSC-NASA-71–10, June 1971, pp. 1–46.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Poonawala, M., “Evaluation of Gold Wirebond’s in IC’s Used in Cannon Launched Environment,” 33rd Electronic Components Conference, Orlando, FL, 1983, pp. 189–192.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Riches, J. W., O. D. Sherby, and J. E. Dorn, “The Fatigue Properties of Some Binary Alpha Solid Solutions of Aluminum,” Trans. ASM, 44, 1952, pp. 882–895.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ritz, K. N., W. T. Stacy, and E. K. Broadbent, “The Microstructure of Ball Bond Corrosion Failures,” 25th Annu. Proc. Int. Reliability Physics Symposium, San Diego, CA, 1987, pp. 28–33.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Singh, M. P., and P. A. Heller, “Random Thermal Stress in Unclear Containments,” Proc. Conf. Probabilistic Mechanics and Statistical Reliability, A. H. Ang, ed., ASCE, 1979, pp. 16–19.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Smith, J. R. H., “Fatigue Strength of Elevated Temperature of L65 Aluminum Alloy Notched and Lag Specimens,” Current Aeronautical Fatigue Problems, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967, pp. 103–130.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Smith, J. M. et al., “Hybrid Microcircuit Tape Chip Carrier Materials/Processing Trade-offs,” IEEE Trans. Parts Hybrids Packaging, PHP-13(3), September 1977, pp. 257–268.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Solomon, Harvey D., “Influence of Hold Time and Fatigue Cycle Wave Shape on the Low Cycle Fatigue of 60/40 Solder,” 38th Electronic Components Conference, Los Angeles, CA, 1988, pp. 7–12.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Thompson, R. J., D. R. Cropper, and B. Whitaker, “Bondability Problems Associated with the Ti—Pt—Au Metallization of Hybrid Microwave Thin Film Circuits,” IEEE Trans. Components,Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, CHMT-4, 1981, pp. 439–445.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Villela, F., and M. F. Nowakowaski, “Investigation of Fatigue Problems in 1 Mil Diameter Thermocompression and Ultrasonic Bonding of Al-Wire,” NASA TM-X-64566, 1970.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wallance, W. E., and C. Sontz, “Introduction on MIL-STD-781D and MILHDBK-781,” IEEE Proc. Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, pp. 418–425, 1985.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Weaver, C., and L. C. Brown, “Diffusion in Evaporated Films of Gold—Aluminum, Philosophical Magazine, 7, 1961, pp. 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Fung, Y. C., Foundations of Solid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Grover, F. W., Inductance Calculations: Working Formulas and Tables,Van Nostrand, New York, 1946.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sesham, K., and S. K. Ray, “Effects of Surface Roughness on Wire Bondability,” Proc. Int. Electronic Manufacturing Technology Symposium, San Francisco, CA, 1986, pp. 109–113.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Pecht
  • Pradeep Lall

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations