Thermal Expansivity and Thermal Stress in Multilayered Structures
Thermal stress is one of the most serious of reliability problems for microelectronic circuits. This is aggravated because the structures are mechanically complex, involving many different materials, each with its own set of elastic coefficients, expansivities, and stress limitations. Many of these effects require long service times or many temperature cycles to cause failures or even measurable changes, so testing new designs is an extremely time-consuming and costly affair. Many designers are resorting to numerical stress analysis, such as finite element studies, and these have helped greatly. There are good reasons, however, to perform analytical calculations of these structures as well, both to verify the finite element studies and to provide the designer with a feeling of how the various controllable parameters will affect the reliability of the product. Also, there are some situations where finite element analysis is not available, or requires unavailable expertise, or may even be too expensive to be practical. In these cases, sometimes a quick analysis of a simplified structure will provide some immediate advice, and perhaps avoid, or at least minimize, thermal stress problems.
KeywordsThermal Stress MULTILAYERED Structure Electronic Packaging ASME Journal Finite Element Study
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