Solder Creep-Fatigue Interactions with Flexible Leaded Surface Mount Components

  • R. G. RossJr.
  • L.-C. Wen


In most electronics packaging applications it is not a single high-stress event that breaks a component solder joint; rather it is repeated or prolonged load applications that result in fatigue or creep failure of the solder. The principal strain in solder joints is caused by differential expansion between the part and its mounting environment due to changes in temperature (thermal cycles) and/or due to temperature gradients between the part and the board.


Fatigue Life Solder Joint Stress Relaxation Creep Strain Strain Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ross, R. G., Jr., et al., “Solder Creep—Fatigue Interactions with Flexible Leaded Parts,” ASME J. Electronic Packaging, 114, 1992, pp. 185–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ross, R. G., Jr., et al., “Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Micro-electronic Solder Joints,” Proceedings of the 1991 MRS Spring Meeting, Anaheim CA, April–May 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lau, J. H., Solder Joint Reliability: Theory and Application, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frear, D. R., W. B. Jones, and K. R. Kinsman, Solder Mechanics: A State of the Art Assessment, Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, 1991.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aldrich, J. W., and D. H. Avery, “Alternating Strain Behavior of a Superplastic Metal,” in Ultrafine Grain Metals, Proceedings of the 16th Sagamore Army Material Research Conference, August 1969, Syracuse University Press, 1970, pp. 397–416.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wild, R. N., “Some Fatigue Properties of Solders and Solder Joints,” IBM Report No. 7AZ000481, IBM Federal Systems Division, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Solomon, H. D., “Influence of Temperature on the Fatigue of CC/PWB Joints,” Journal of the IES, January/February 1990, pp. 17–25.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Manson, S. S., “Effect of Mean Stress and Strain on Cyclic Life,” Machine Design, August 1960, pp. 129–135.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manson, S. S., “Fatigue: A Complex Subject—Some Simple Approximations,” Engineering Mechanics, 5, 1965, pp. 193–226.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solomon, H. D., “Predicting Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue Lifes from Isothermal Low-cycle Data,” Solder Joint Reliability: Theory and Application, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, pp. 406–454.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solomon, H. D., ASME J. Electronic Packaging, 111, 1989, pp. 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vaynman, S., M. E. Fine, and D. A. Jeannotte, “Low-cycle Isothermal Fatigue Life of Soldered Materials,” Solder Mechanics, D. R. Frear et al., eds., Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, 1991, pp. 333–360.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gohn, G. R., and W. C. Ellis, Proc. ASTM, 51, 1951, pp. 721–740.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solomon, H. D., Electronic Packaging Materials and Processes, J. A. Sortell, ed., ASM, 1985, pp. 29–49.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Solomon, H. D., IEEE 38th Electronic Components Conference, May 1988, pp. 7–13.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Engelmaier, W., “Functional Cycling and Surface Mounting Attachment Reliability,” ISHM Technical Monographic Series 6984–002, International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics, 1984, pp. 87–114.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Engelmaier, W., Circuit World, 11 (3), 1985, pp. 61–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Engelmaier, W., “Solder Attachment Reliability, Accelerated Testing, and Result Evaluation,” Solder Joint Reliability: Theory and Application, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, pp. 545–587.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pan, T-Y., “Thermal Cycling Induced Plastic Deformation in Solder Joints—Part 1: Accumulated Deformation in Surface Mount Joints,” ASME J. Electronic Packaging, 113, March 1991, pp. 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cline, H. E., and T. H. Alden, “Rate Sensitive Deformation in Tin-Lead Alloy,” Trans. AIME, 239, 1967, pp. 710–714.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zehr, S. W. and W. A. Backofen, “Superplasticity in Lead-Tin Alloys,” Trans. ASM, 61, 1968, pp. 300–312.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Guo, Z., A. F. Sprecher, and H. Conrad, “Plastic Deformation Kinetics of Eutectic Pb-Sn Solder Joints in Monotonic Loading and Low-cycle Fatigue,” ASME Paper No. 91-WA-EEP-48 presented at the 1991 ASME WAM, Atlanta, GA, December 1991.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weinbel, R. C., J. K. Tien, R. A. Pollak, and S. K. Kang, “Creep—Fatigue Interaction in Eutectic Lead—Tin Solder Alloy,” J. Materials Science Letters, 6, 1987, pp. 3091–3096.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Avery, D. H., and W. A. Backofen, “A Structural Basis for Superplasticity,” Trans. ASM, 58, 1965, pp. 551–562.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Murty, G. S., “Stress Relaxation in Superplastic Materials,” J. Materials Science, 8, 1973, pp. 611–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kashyap, B. P., and G. S. Murty, “Experimental Constitutive Relations for the High Temperature Deformation of a Pb—Sn Eutectic Alloy,” Materials Science and Engineering, 50, 1981, pp. 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arrowood, R., A. Mukherjee, and W. B. Jones, “Hot Deformation of Two-phase Mixtures,” Solder Mechanics: A State of the Art Assessment, Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, 1991, pp. 107–153.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lampe, B. T., “Room Temperature Aging Properties of Some Solder Alloys,” Welding Research Supplement, October 1976, pp. 330–340.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    NASA, “Requirements for Soldered Electrical Connections,” NHB 5300.4(3A-1), revalidation date June 1986.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ross, R. G., Jr., Magellan/Galileo Solder Joint Failure Analysis and Recommendations, JPL Publication 89–35, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, September 1989.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ross, R. G., Jr., “A Systems Approach to Solder Joint Fatigue in Spacecraft Electronic Packaging,” ASME J. Electronic Packaging, 113, June 1991, pp. 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. RossJr.
  • L.-C. Wen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations