Microstructural Evaluation of Sn-Pb Solder and Pd-Ag Thick-Film Conductor Metallization Under Thermal Cycling and Aging Conditions

  • Jenq-Gong Duh
  • Kuo-Chuan Liu
  • Bi-Shiou Chiou


Soldering is a technique for bonding different metals in which liquid solder wets the base metal surface by reducing the surface energy,1 and thus makes a complete joint. Sn-Pb solder is the most popular one that is applied to bond many different kinds of metals in the electronics industry. The soldered joint is found in all electronic products, such as computers, radios, TV sets, etc.2 However, the soldered joint will degrade after a period of time. The mechanical strength will decrease, the electrical resistance will increase, and the fillet’s volume will shrink.3,4 The degradation is believed to be accompanied by an interfacial interaction between the base metal and the solder that produces an intermetallic compound at the interface.3 To prevent joint degradation, the mechanism must be understood.


Intermetallic Compound Solder Joint Transverse Crack Bismuth Oxide Peel Test 
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© Van Nostrand Reinhold 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jenq-Gong Duh
  • Kuo-Chuan Liu
  • Bi-Shiou Chiou

There are no affiliations available

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