The first report of surface-attached heparin was by Gott and co-workers in 1963 . In this work, heparin was attached through formation of a complex with a quaternary ammonium salt which was adsorbed to graphite. The discovery of the thromboresistant properties of heparinized surfaces was inadvertent because the original intent of the work was to evaluate graphite. The graphite surface was treated with a quaternary ammonium salt to sterilize it, and the surface was rinsed in heparin as a simple precautionary measure. Gott’s work showed that the marked thromboresistance of the graphite-benzalkonium-heparin (GBH) surface was due to the presence of heparin attached at the surface. This method held the promise of enabling one to use foreign surfaces in contact with blood without systemic anticoagulation. However, in practice, the GBH coating could not be applied to flexible materials, and thus its use was limited.
KeywordsNatural Rubber Silicone Rubber Quaternary Ammonium Salt Cyanuric Chloride Columbus Laboratory
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