Advertisement

Necessary Considerations for Selecting a Polymeric Material for Implantation with Emphasis on Polyurethanes

  • Garth L. Wilkes
Part of the Polymer Science and Technology book series (POLS, volume 8)

Abstract

It is best to begin this paper by stating that its content is intended primarily for those in the medical or medically related professions and for those who have a general need to understand or be aware of design problems concerned with polymeric implant materials. The word “design” is meant to be broad in meaning for this context in that the actual design considerations should begin with the chemistry used in producing the individual polymer chains and extend through the clinical testing of the fabricated device or implant.

Keywords

Polymeric Material Molecular Weight Distribution Natural Rubber Hard Segment Soft Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Farbenfabriken Bayer A. G., British Patent 769, 682 (1952).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruins, P. F., Ed., Polyurethane Technology, Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1969.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beist, J. M. and Gudgeon, H., Advances in Polyurethane Technology, Maclaren and Sons, London, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saunders, J. H. and Frisch, K. C., Polyurethanes: Chemistry and Technology, Parts I and II, High Polymers, Vol. 16, Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1962.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sayigh, A.A.R., Ulrich, H., and Farrissey, W. J., Jr., in Condensation Monomers, J. K. Stille and T. W. Campbell, Eds., High Polymers, Vol. 27, Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1972, p. 369.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Phillips, L. N. and Parker, D.B.V., Polyurethanes, Iliffe Books, London, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chang, Y. J. and Wilkes, G. L., manuscript to be submitted for publication in J. Polym. Sci.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hicks, E. M., Jr., Ultec, A. J., and Drougas, J., Science, 147, 373 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buist, J. M., Crowley, G. P., and Lowe, A., Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, H. F. Mark and N. G. Gaylord, Eds., Interscience Publishers, John Wiley and Sons, N. Y., 1971, Vol. 15, p. 445.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seymour, R. W., and Cooper, S. L., presented at the meeting of the Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society, Denver, Colorado, 1973.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    MacKnight, W. J. and Yang, M., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., 42, 817 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tanaka, T., Yokoyama, T., and Kaku, K., Mem. Fac. Eng., Kyushu Univ., 23, 113 (1963).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Samuels, S. L., Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1973.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morbitzer, L. and Hespe, H., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 16, 2697 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Horrell, L. L., Macromolecules, 2, 607(1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Samuels, S. L. and Wilkes, G. L., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., 43, 149 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilkes, G. L. and Samuels, S. L., J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 7, 541 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wilkes, G. L., Samuels, S. L., and Crystal, R., J. Macromol. Sci., Phys. (in press).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang, Y. J., Wilkes, G. L., and Chen, C. T., Amer. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem., Prepr., 14, 1277 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang, Y. J., Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1974.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilkes, G. L. and Samuels, S. L., in Block and Graft Copolymers, J. Burke and V. Weiss, Eds., Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N. Y., 1973, p. 225.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Desper, C. R., Illinger, J. L., and Schneider, N. S., Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc., March, 1974, paper BM3.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wilkes, G. L., Bagrodia, S., Humphries, W., and Wildnauer, R., submitted to J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Lett. Ed.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wilkes, G. L. and Samuels, S. L., in Block and Graft Copolymers, J. Burke and V. Weiss, Eds., Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N. Y., 1973, p. 205.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Estes, G. M., Seymour, R. W., and Cooper, S. L., Macromolecules, 4, 452 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wilkes, C. E. and Yusek, C., J. Macromol. Sci., Phys., 7, 157 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boretos, J. W., Buttig, C. G., and Goodman, L., Anesth. Analg. (Cleveland), 51, 292(1972).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mirkovitch, V., Akutsu, T., and Kolff, W. J., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 8, 79 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wagner, M., Ruel, G., Teresi, J., and Kayser, K., Surg., Gynecol., Obstet., 127, 805 (1968).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kantrowitz, A., et al., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 14, 344 (1968).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Boretos, J. W. and Pierce, W. S., Science, 158, 1481 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boretos, J. W., Pierce, W. S., Baier, R. E., Le Roy, A. F., and Donachy, H. J., presented at the 77th National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Pittsburgh, Pa., May–June, 1974.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pierce, W. S., Turner, M. C., Boretos, J. W., Nolan, S. P., and Morrow, A. G., Surgery, 66, 1034 (1969).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kolobow, T., Zapol, W., and Pierce, J., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 15, 172 (1969).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lyman, D. J., and Loo, B. H., J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 1, 17 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brauman, S. and Fritzinger, B., J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 16, 2439 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hessel, E. A., May, K. J., Steinmetz, G. P., Jr., Anderson, H. N., Dillard, D. H., and Merendino, K. A., J. Thorac. Cardiov. Surg., 54, 227(1967).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boretos, J. W., Detmer, D. E., Donachy, J. H., and Mirkovitch, V., J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 5, 373 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lee, H. and Neville, K., Handbook of Biomedical Plastics, Pasadena Technology Press, Pasadena, Calif., 1971.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Salvatore, J. E., Moncrief, W. H., Mandarino, M. P., and Sherman, R. T., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 5, 325 (1960).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Patrick, R. L., et al., J. Dent. Res. 47, 12 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Boretos, J. W. and Pierce, W. S., J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 2, 121 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Boretos, J. W. and Wagner, F. R., ibid., 5, 411 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rigdon, R. H., ibid., 7, 79 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boretos, J. W., Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Las Vegas, Nev., Vol. 13, 1971, p. 212.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leininger, R. I., Amer. Soc. Test. Mater. Spec. Tech. Publ., No. 386, 71 (1968).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lyman, D. J., Rev. Macromol. Chem., 1, 355 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boretos, J. W., J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 6, 473 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Walter, J. C. and Chiaramonte, L. G., Brit. J. Surg., 52, 49 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sherman, R. T. and Lyons, H., J. Surg. Res., 9, 167 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cohen, J. L. and Van Aartsen, J. J., J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Symp., 42, 1325 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sharp, W. V., Gardner, D. L., and Anderson, G. J., Trans. Amer. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 12, 179 (1966).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gardner, D. L., Sharp, W. V., Ewing, K. L., and Finelli, F., ibid., 15, 7 (1969).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grode, G. A., Anderson, G. J., Grotta, N. M., and Falb, R. D., ibid., 15, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mirkovitch, V., et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 16, 381 (1961).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garth L. Wilkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Polymer Materials Program, Department of Chemical EngineeringPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations