Classification of Dyes by Chemical Structure

  • P. Gregory
Part of the Topics in Applied Chemistry book series (TAPP)


There are several ways to classify dyes. For example, they may be classified by fiber type, such as dyes for nylon, dyes for cotton, dyes for polyester, and so on. Dyes may also be classified by their method of application to the substrate. Such a classification would include direct dyes, reactive dyes, vat dyes, disperse dyes, azoic dyes, and several more types. These classifications are more suited to a book aimed at the technology of the application of dyes to a substrate rather than one dealing primarily with the synthesis and chemistry of dyes. Griffiths1 has classified dyes on a purely theoretical basis based upon the electronic origins of color. Only four classes are defined, namely:
  1. 1.

    Donor-acceptor chromogens.

  2. 2.

    Cyanine-type chromogens.

  3. 3.

    Polyene chromogens.

  4. 4.

    nπ* chromogens.



Diazonium Salt Phthalic Anhydride Light Fastness Hydrazone Form Disperse Yellow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Griffiths, Color and Constitution of Organic Molecules, Academic Press, London (1976).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Color Index, 3rd Edition, Vol. 4, The Society of Dyers and Colorists (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Zincke and H. Binderwald, Chem. Ber. 17, 3026 (1884).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Gregory, Dyes and Pigments 7, 45 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. F. Gordon and P. Gregory, Organic Chemistry in Color, pp. 104–108, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ref. 5, pp. 96–115.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ref. 5, pp. 3 and 4.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ref. 5, pp. 164–169.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ref. 5, Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. W. Greenhalgh, J. L. Carey, and D. F. Newton, Dyes and Pigments 1, 103 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Griffiths, in: Developments in the Chemistry and Technology of Organic Dyes (J. Griffiths, ed.), p. 16, Blackwell, Oxford (1984).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. W. Greenhalgh, J. L. Carey and D. F. Newton, British Patent 1, 568,231 (1976).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. W. Greenhalgh and J. L. Carey, British Patent 2,055,881A (1980).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ref. 5, pp. 211–213.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. Luttke and M. Klessinger, Chem. Ber. 97, 2342 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Luttke, H. Hermann, and M. Klessinger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 5, 598 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Klessinger, Tetrahedron 19, 3355 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Klessinger and W. Luttke, Tetrahedron 19 (Suppl. 2), 315 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mitsubishi, Japanese Patent 59,078,896 (1982).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Parton, British Patent 1,349,513 (1970).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. P. Linstead, J. Chem. Soc., 1016, 1017, 1022, 1027, 1031, and 1033 (1934).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. M. Robertson, J. Chem. Soc., 615 (1935).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ref. 2, p. 4475.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ref. 5, p. 16.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ref. 2, Vol. 3.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ref. 5, p. 257.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Price, The Chemistry of Metal Complex Dyestuffs, pp. 373–383, in: The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes (K. Venkataraman, ed.), Vol. III, Academic Press, New York and London (1970).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. H. Schundehutte, Reactive Dyes: Chromophore Systems, pp. 287–291, in: The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes (K. Venkataraman, ed.), Vol. VI, Academic Press, New York and London (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Gregory
    • 1
  1. 1.Fine Chemicals Research CentreICI Colours and Fine ChemicalsBlackley, ManchesterEngland

Personalised recommendations