The structure and function of biological membranes are fundamental problems in modern biology. The reason for the exceptional interest shown in this problem is that processes of the greatest importance to life take place in the membranes of all cells starting from bacteria and ending with the cells of the human brain. Among the most universal processes connected with biological membranes are the exchange of ions and metabolites between cell and environment and the transformation of energy in electron transport chains during oxidative and photosynthetic phosphorylation. The membrane apparatus of the cell divides it into distinct “compartments,” thereby giving the biochemical processes a spatial distribution and creating partition surfaces which play an important role in a number of enzyme reactions. The membranes exercise control over metabolic systems in the cell by regulating the permeability of substrates and of reaction products, as well as of ions as activators or inhibitors of the enzymes. Other specific functions determined by the physiology of the corresponding cell types are also connected with biological membranes. One very important feature is that membranes and, in particular, the enzymes linked together in them are the site of action of cell drugs, poisons, hormones, and some antibiotics.
KeywordsDifferential Thermal Analysis Respiratory Chain Electron Transport Chain Biological Membrane Bacterial Membrane
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