Advertisement

Biogenesis of Chloroplast Membranes in Chlamydomonas reinhardi: Chloroplast-Controlled Transfer of Cytoplasmic Proteins to the Developing Chloroplast Membranes as Visualized by Quantitative Radioautography

  • Israel Goldberg
  • Ilan Friedberg
  • Itzhak Ohad
Part of the Biomembranes book series (B, volume 7)

Abstract

Transfer of proteins from the cytoplasm to organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts has been implied by many studies (Eytan and Ohad, 1970; Hoober, 1970a, b; Sebald et al., 1973; Hoober et al., 1969; Goodenough and Levine, 1970; Smillie and Scott, 1969; Surzycki et al., 1970; Mason and Schatz, 1973; Woodward et al., 1970; Rubin and Tzagoloff, 1973). Although it has been shown that transfer of proteins from microsomes to the outer mitochondrial membrane can occur in vitro (Kadenbach, 1967), such direct evidence has not been obtained so far for proteins of the internal membrane system of the chloroplast. One main difficulty in the study of interorganelle transfer of proteins and its control resides in the fact that isolated microsomes, mitochondria, or chloroplasts are not active enough in synthesis of proteins in vitro to permit such studies. However, it is possibleto take advantage of radioautographic methods, as has been done in order to measure transport and localization of proteins (Jamieson and Palade 1968a, b) or lipids (Ohad et al., 1967; Goldberg and Ohad, 1970b) within intracellular organelles.

Keywords

Total Radioactivity Specific Radioactivity Chloroplast Membrane Euglena Gracilis Fresh Growth Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnon, D. L., 1949, Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Polyphenoloxidase in Beta Vulgaris, Plant Physiol. 24: 1 – 15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bray, G. A., 1960, A simple efficient liquid scintillator for counting aqueous solutions in a liquid scintillation counter, Anal. Biochem. 1: 279 – 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caro, L. G., and van Tubergen, R. P., 1962, High-resolution autoradiography. I. Methods, J. Cell. Biol. 15: 173 – 188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ebbon, J. G., and Tait, G. H., 1969, Studies on S-Adenosylmethionine—magnesium protoporphyrin methyltransferase in Euglena gracilis strain Z, Biochem. J. 111: 573 – 582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Eytan, G., and Ohad, I., 1970, Biogenesis of chloroplast membranes. III. Cooperation between cytoplasmic and chloroplast ribosomes in the synthesis of photosynthetic lamellar proteins during the greening process in a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 4297 – 4307.Google Scholar
  6. Goldberg, I., and Ohad, I., 1970a, Biogenesis of chloroplast membranes. IV. Lipid and pigment changes during synthesis of chloroplast membranes in a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1, J. Cell. Biol. 44: 563 – 571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldberg, I., and Ohad, I., 1970b, Biogenesis of chloroplast membranes. V. A radio-autographic study of membrane growth in a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1, J. Cell. Biol. 44: 572 – 591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goodenough, V. W., and Levine, R. P., 1970, Chloroplast structure and function in ac-20, a mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. III. Chloroplast ribosomes and membrane organization; J. Cell. Biol. 44: 547 – 562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoober, J. K., 1970a, Sites of synthesis of chloroplast membrane polypeptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 4327 - 4334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoober, J. K., 1970b, Formation of chloroplast membranes in Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1, J. Cell Biol. 47: 90a.Google Scholar
  11. Hoober, J. L., 1972, A major polypeptide of chloroplast membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Evidence for synthesis in the cytoplasm as a soluble component, J. Cell Biol. 52: 84 – 96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoober, J. K., Siekevitz, P., and Palade, G. E., 1969, Formation of chloroplast membranes in Chlamydomonas reinhardi y-1. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 2621 – 2631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Jamieson, J. D., and Palade, G. E., 1968a, Intracellular transport of secretory proteins in the pancreatic exocrine cell. III. Dissociation of intracellular transport from protein synthesis, J. Cell Biol. 39: 580 – 588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jamieson, J. D., and Palade, G. E., 1968b, Intracellular transport of secretory proteins in the pancreatic exocrine cell. IV. Metabolic requirements, J. Cell Biol. 39: 589 – 603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kadenbach, B., 1967, Synthesis of mitochondrial proteins: demonstration of a transfer of proteins from microsomes into mitochondria, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 134: 430 – 442.Google Scholar
  16. Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., and Randall, R. J., 1951, Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265 – 275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Luft, J. H., 1961, Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 9: 409 – 419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mason, T. L., and Schatz, G., 1973, Cytochrome c-oxidase from baker’s yeast. II. Site of translation of the protein components, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 1355 – 1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ohad, I., Siekevitz, P., and Palade, G. E., 1967, Biogenesis of chloroplast membranes. I. Plastid dedifferentiation in a dark-grown algal mutant (Chlamydomonas reinhardi), J. Cell Biol. 35: 521 – 552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ohad, I., Siekevitz, P., and Palade, G. E., 1967, Biogenesis of chloroplast membranes. II. Plastid differentiation during greening of a dark-grown algal mutant (Chlamydomonas reinhardi), J. Cell Biol. 35: 553 – 584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Reynolds, E. S., 1963, The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy, J. Cell Biol. 17: 208 – 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rubin, M. S., and Tzagoloff, A., 1973, Assembly of the mitochondrial membrane systems X. Mitochondrial synthesis of three of the subunit proteins of yeast cytochrome oxidase, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 4275 – 4279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Salpeter, M. M., Bachmann, I., and Salpeter, E. E., 1969, Resolution in electron microscope radioautography, J. Cell Biol. 41: 1 – 20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schiff, J., 1970, Developmental interactions among cellular compartments in Euglena, in “Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Control of Organelle Development” (P. L. Miller, ed.), pp. 277–301, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Sebald, W., Machleidt, W., and Otto, J., 1973, Products of mitochondrial protein synthesis in Neurospora crassa. Determination of equimolar amounts of three products in cytochrome oxidase on the basis of amino-acid analysis, Eur. J. Biochem. 38: 311 – 324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smillie, R. M., and Scott, S., 1969, Organelle biosynthesis: the chloroplast, in “Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology” (F. E. Hahn, ed.), Vol. 1, pp. 136 – 202, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Surzycki, S. J., Goodenough, V. W., Levine, R. P., and Armstrong, J. J., 1970, Nuclear and chloroplast control of chloroplast structure and function in Chlamydomonas reinhardi, in “Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Control of Organelle Development” (P. L. Miller, ed.), pp. 13–35, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Sussenbach, J. S., and Strijkert, P. J., 1969, Arginine metabolism in Chalmydomonas reinhardi. On the regulation of the arginine biosynthesis, Eur. J. Biochem. 8: 403 – 407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wallach, D., Bar-Nun, S., and Ohad, I., 1970, Photophostphorylation activity in a Chlamydomonas reinhardi mutant (y-1) during light induced formation of its chloroplast membranes, Israel J. Chem. 8: 161.Google Scholar
  30. Woodward, D. O., Edwards, D. L., and Flavell, R. B., 1970, Nucleocytoplasmic interactions in the control of mitochondrial structure and function in neurospora, in “Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. Control of Organelle Development” (P. L. Miller, ed.), pp. 55–69, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • Israel Goldberg
    • 1
  • Ilan Friedberg
    • 1
  • Itzhak Ohad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological ChemistryThe Hebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations