X-Ray Techniques in the 1 to 400 Å Range
X-ray work in the 10 to 400 Å range usually requires, for maximum sensitivity, new methods of X-ray generation, analysis, and detection. A comparative survey includes X-ray generation by fluorescence, electron bombardment, and proton bombardment. Dispersive analysis with crystals and gratings is described. Finally, windowless photoelectric multipliers are evaluated as X-ray detectors.
Results show that typical efficiences range from 10−4 to 10−2 photons/electron or photons/proton, with the latter value as a practical upper limit. An efficiency of 8.5% has been measured for a KAP crystal covering the wavelength range up to 25 Å, while an original gold-plated grating has a maximum measured efficiency of 20%. Counter efficiency may range from 1 to 50%, depending on wavelength. Total efficiency for a grating-type spectrometer in the 20 to 400 Å range has been measured to 2 × 105 photons/cm2-count.
KeywordsGrazing Incidence Soap Film Grating Spectrometer Proton Bombardment Rowland Circle
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