X-Ray Techniques in the 1 to 400 Å Range

  • Andrew A. Sterk
Conference paper


X-ray work in the 10 to 400 Å range usually requires, for maximum sensitivity, new methods of X-ray generation, analysis, and detection. A comparative survey includes X-ray generation by fluorescence, electron bombardment, and proton bombardment. Dispersive analysis with crystals and gratings is described. Finally, windowless photoelectric multipliers are evaluated as X-ray detectors.

Results show that typical efficiences range from 10−4 to 10−2 photons/electron or photons/proton, with the latter value as a practical upper limit. An efficiency of 8.5% has been measured for a KAP crystal covering the wavelength range up to 25 Å, while an original gold-plated grating has a maximum measured efficiency of 20%. Counter efficiency may range from 1 to 50%, depending on wavelength. Total efficiency for a grating-type spectrometer in the 20 to 400 Å range has been measured to 2 × 105 photons/cm2-count.


Grazing Incidence Soap Film Grating Spectrometer Proton Bombardment Rowland Circle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew A. Sterk
    • 1
  1. 1.American Machine & Foundry CompanyAlexandriaUSA

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