Rotational Polymorphism of Methyl-Substituted Ammonium Perchlorates
The thermal transformations which take place in solid methyl-substituted ammonium perchlorates have been studied using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques. In the temperature range from 20°C to their decomposition temperature (above 300°C), ammonium perchlorate and tetramethyl ammonium perchlorate undergo only one enantiomorphic phase transition, namely at 240 and 340°C (with decomposition), respectively. This I–II transition is ascribed to the beginning of the free rotation of the C104 − ions. The rotation of the cations, however, begins below room temperature. If the symmetry of the cation is lowered by having both methyl groups and hydrogens arranged around the nitrogen (as in monomethyl, dimethyl, and trimethyl ammonium perchlorates), there is an additional enantiomorphic phase transition. This II–III transformation is ascribed to the rotation of the cations which have, in the partially substituted ions, two sets of non-equivalent symmetry axes (different moments of inertia). The temperatures of transformation are discussed in terms of the space requirements for rotation. Symmetries and cell dimensions of some modifications were determined.
KeywordsAmmonium Perchlorate Ammonium Perchlorate Dimethyl Ammonium Perchlorate Salt Tetragonal Unit Cell
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