X-Ray Study of Wire-Drawn Niobium and Tantalum

  • R. P. I. Adler
  • H. M. Otte
Conference paper


Deformation, introduced into niobium and tantalum specimens by wire drawing at room temperature, produced changes in the shape and position of X-ray diffraction peaks. The resultant peak profiles and locations of all available peaks were recorded using the Debye—Scherrer geometry on a modified diffractometer with crystal monochromated Cu K α1 radiation. The amount of deformation in the surface layers of both metals was’found to saturate essentially after only 20% reduction in area. The measured decrease in the lattice parameters of either material was attributed to a residual surface stress; the average value for the deformed saturated state for both tantalum and niobium wires corresponded to an equivalent longitudinal tensile stress of 35 ± 5 kg/mm2. Integral breadth measurements revealed approximately equal X-ray particle sizes in the ‹100› and ‹110› directions; the minimum particle size for the microstructures of both metals was around 200 Å and occurred after the first few draws.


Residual Stress Residual Surface Stress Integral Breadth Wire Axis Particle Size Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Latrobe Steel Company, Bulletin 100, Tech Topics: Stainless Steels, Latrobe, Pennsylvania 1961.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Metals Handbook,Vol. 1,8th ed., American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1961, pp. 153, 1202, 1222, 1225.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. O. Everling, “Super-High Strength Wire, A Component of Metallic Composites,” in: Proc. 6th Sagamore Ordnance Matls. Res. Conf., Composite Materials and Composite Structures, Racquette Lake, N.Y., 1959.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. D. Embury and R. M. Fisher, “The Structure and Properties of Drawn Pearlite,” Acta Met. 14: 147–159, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. M. Baldwin, Jr., “Residual Stress in Metals, ”Proceedings of the American Society for Testing Materials 49: 1–45, 1949.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. A. Trozera, “On the Nonhomogeneous Work for Wire Drawing,” Trans. ASME 57: 309–323, 1964.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. I. Bolef, “Elastic Constants of Single Crystals of the Body-Centered Cubic Transition Elements V, Nb, and Ta,” J. Appl. Phys. 32: 100–105, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. B. Greenough, “Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Observations in Strained Metal Aggregates,” Progr. Metal Phys. 3: 176–219, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. M. Otte, “Lattice-Parameter Determinations with an X-Ray Spectrogoniometer by the Debye-Scherrer Method and the Effect of Specimen Condition,” J. Appl. Phys. 32: 1536–1346, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. B. Nelson and D. P. Riley, “An Experimental Investigation of Extrapolation Methods in the Derivation of Accurate Unit Cell Dimensions of Crystals,” Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 57: 160177, 1945.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. E. Warren, “X-Ray Studies of Deformed Metals,” Progr. Metal. Phys. 8: 147–202, 1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. N. J. Wagner, A. S. Tetelman, and H. M. Otte, “Diffraction from Layer Faults in bcc and fcc Structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 33: 3080–3086, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. N. J. Wagner, “Analysis of the Broadening and Changes in Position of X-ray Powder Pattern Peaks,” in: J. B. Cohen and J. E. Hilliard (eds.), Local Atomic Arrangements Studied by X-Ray Diffraction, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965, Chapt. 6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Taylor, X-Ray Metallography, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1961, pp. 605, 692, 788.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. O. Welch and H. M. Otte, “The Effect of Cold-Work on the X-Ray Diffraction Pattern of a Copper-Silicon-Manganese Alloy,” in: W. M. Mueller and M. J. Fay (eds.), Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 6, 1963, p. 96–120.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. W. Barbee and R. A. Huggins, “Dislocation Structures in Deformed and Recovered Tantalum,” J. Less-Common Metals 8: 306–319, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. I. van Tome and G. Thomas, “Yielding and Plastic Flow in Niobium,” Acta Met. 11: 88 1893, 1963.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. J. Opinsky, J. L. Orehotsky and C. W. W. Hoffman, “X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Crystallite Size and Lattice Strain in Tungsten Wire,” J. Appl. Phys. 33: 708–712, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. N. Aqua and C. N. J. Wagner, “X-Ray Diffraction Study of Deformation by Filing in bcc Refractory Metals,” Phil. Mag. 9: 565–589, 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. M. Otte and J. J. Hren, Experimental Mechanics 6: 177–193, 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. L. Mincher and W. F. Sheely, “Effect of Structure and Purity on the Mechanical Properties of Niobium,” Trans AIME 221: 19–25, 1961.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. S. Bartlett, D. N. Williams, H. R. Ogden, R. I. Jaffee, and E. F. Bradley, “High Temperature Solid-Solution-Strengthened Columbium Alloys,” Trans. Met. Soc. AIME 227: 459–467, 1963.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. A. Adams, A C. Roberts, and R. E. Smallman, “Yield and Fracture in Polycrystalline Niobium,” Acta Met. 8: 328–337, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Schussler and J. S. Brunhouse, Jr., “Mechanical Properties of Tantalum Metal Consolidated by Melting,” Trans. AIME 218: 893–900, 1960.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. S. Tedmon and D. P. Ferris, “The Dependence of Yield Stress on Grain Size for Tantalum and a 10% W-90% Ta Alloy,” Trans. AIME 224: 1079–1080, 1962.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. I. Adler
    • 1
  • H. M. Otte
    • 1
  1. 1.Martin CompanyOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations