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A Possible Second Messenger System for the Production of Long-Term Changes in Synapses

  • Michel Baudry
  • Peter Seubert
  • Gary Lynch
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 221)

Abstract

Interactions between neurons that leave physiological traces lasting more than a few milleseconds are typically explained by reference to a second messenger system. Candidates for second messengers in brain typically involve enzymes, most often protein kinases, and use activation sequences that vary considerably in complexity; for example, calcium/calmodulin activated kinases require only the presence of sufficient concentrations of calcium against an appropriate background while stimulation of the c-AMP dependent kinase is pictured as a series of steps that include protein translocation, activation of a cyclase, and so forth (Greengard, 1981). Recently a probable second messenger system of considerable complexity and involving a novel type of kinase has been identified (Berridge and Irvine, 1984). Activation of several types of transmitter and hormone receptors stimulates the turnover of membrane phosphatidylinositol (PI) with the formation of two breakdown products in the interior of the cell, one of which releases calcium from intracellular stores and a second that, together with calcium, causes the translocation and activation of protein kinase C. This system can be modulated at several stages, as indicated by the observation that certain membrane receptor classes suppress the activation by other receptors of PI turnover (Baudry et al., 1986). In this chapter we will review the hypothesis that a novel kind of second messenger system is found in brain that, when activated, causes irreversible changes in the fundamental structures and functions of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

Keywords

Calpain Activation Messenger System Membrane Skeleton Synaptic Potentiation Brain Spectrin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Baudry
    • 1
  • Peter Seubert
    • 1
  • Gary Lynch
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and MemoryUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

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