The New Cosmos pp 313-319 | Cite as

Cosmic Rays: High Energy Astronomy

  • Albrecht Unsöld
Part of the Heidelberg Science Library book series (HSL)


To-day one investigates primary cosmic rays, before they have started to interact with the material of the Earth’s atmosphere, by use of balloons, rockets and artificial satellites. They include protons, α-particles and heavy nuclei. By means of tracks in photographic emulsions, one can determine their charge-number Z and then one finds the following abundance-distribution compared with ordinary stellar material of population I. The table gives log N referred to hydrogen = 12, where N is the relative number of atoms.


Radio Source Radio Galaxy Interplanetary Plasma Galactic Magnetic Field Cosmic Structure 


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Cosmic Rays: High Energy Astronomy

  1. Ginzburg, W. L., and S. I. Syrovatskii: The origin of cosmic rays. Oxford: Pergamon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  2. Sandström, A. E.: Cosmic ray physics. Amsterdam: North-Holland 1965.MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Wolfendale, A. W.: Cosmic rays. London: Lewnes 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albrecht Unsöld
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical Physics and University ObservatoryKielGermany

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