Experimental Method for Investigating the Energy Losses and the Stability of a Plasma in Toroidal Chambers of the Tokamak Type by Means of a Bolometric Probe
It is well known that when a plasma undergoes ohmic heating in toroidal chambers to which a strong magnetic field has been applied, a strong plasma outflow occurs even in the case of a rather large hydromagnetic stability reserve [1–3]. This outflow can be described by the Kruskal—Shafranov criterion, which states that the so-called macroscopical plasma stability is reached when no oscillations occur in the overall characteristics of the discharge. However, until recently, no adequate methods for evaluating the principal energy losses of plasmas in toroidal devices were available. Furthermore, since the lifetime of the charged particles in plasmas are not clearly defined (the densities can be determined with radio-interferometric measurements of the density τp), one cannot establish a relation between the lifetime and the plasma parameters. The present article relates to the TM-2 device  and describes: (1) a method for investigating the principal energy losses and the energy balance in a plasma by means of a bolometric probe, and (2) an experimental method, based on bolometric determinations of the energy losses in a plasma, for determining the lifetimes τE of the charged plasma particles.
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