Naturalness, Chiral Symmetry, and Spontaneous Chiral Symmetry Breaking

  • G.’t Hooft
Part of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series book series (NSSB, volume 59)


A properly called “naturalness” is imposed on gauge theories. It is an order-of-magnitude restriction that must hold at all energy scales μ. To construct models with complete naturalness for elementary particles one needs more types of confining gauge theories besides quantum chromodynamics. We propose a search program for models with improved naturalness and concentrate on the possibility that presently elementary fermions can be considered as composite. Chiral symmetry must then be responsible for the masslessness of these fermions. Thus we search for QCD-like models where chiral symmetry is not or only partly broken spontaneously. They are restricted by index relations that often cannot be satisfied by other than unphysical fractional indices. This difficulty made the author’s own search unsuccessful so far. As a by-product we find yet another reason why in ordinary QCD chiral symmetry must be broken spontaneously.


Gauge Theory Gauge Group Energy Scale Chiral Symmetry Gauge Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • G.’t Hooft
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical FysicsUtrechtThe Netherlands

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