The Endocrine System

  • George M. Maxwell


The endocrine system is composed of a group of ductless glands which synthesise, may store, and can release into the blood stream those agents called hormones. The synthesis of hormones can be stimulated or inhibited by other substances generally called releasing or inhibiting factors.


Thyroid Stimulate Hormone Endocrine System Anabolic Steroid Thyrotrophin releaSing Hormone Precocious Puberty 
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Hypothalamus and Pituitary

  1. Bateman, D.N., Dahn, C., Mashiter, I. and Davies, D.S. (1978) Pharmacokinetic and Concentration-Effect Studies with Intravenous Metoclopramide’, Br. J. Clin. Pharm, 6, 401–407Google Scholar
  2. Grossman, A., Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C., Perry, L., Tomlin, S., Schally, A.V., Coy, D.H., Rees, L.H., Comaru-Schally, A-M. and Besser, G.M. (1982) `New Hypothalamic Hormone, Corticotrophin-releasing Factor Specifically Stimulates the Release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol in Man’, Lancet, i, 921–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kelch, R.P., Clemens, L.E., Markovs, M., Westhoff, M.H. and Hawkins, D.W. (1975) `Metabolism and Effects of Synthetic Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) in Children and Adults’, J. Clin. Endocr, 40, 53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Meites, J. and Sonntag, W.E. (1981) `Hypothalamic Hypophysiotropic Hormones and Neurotransmitter Regulation: Current Views’, Ann. Rev. Pharm. Toxicol, 21, 295–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Parks, J.S., Snyder, P.S., Utiger, R.D., Moshang, T. and Bongiovanni, A.M. (1973) `Thyrotropin and Thyroidal Responses to Consecutive Doses of Thyrotropinreleasing Hormone’, J. Clin. Endocr, 37, 466–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar

The Adrenal Gland

  1. Forsyth, C.C. (1981) `Growth and Development of the Adrenal Cortex’, in Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics, 2nd edn (eds Davis, J.A. and Dobbing, J., Heinemann, London ), pp. 660–691Google Scholar
  2. Green, O.G., Winter, R.H., Kawahara, F.S., Phillips, L.S., Lewy, P.R., Hart, R.L. and Pachman, L.M. (1978) ‘Pharmacokinetic Studies of Prednisolone in Children’, J. Pediat, 93, 299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Pickup, M.E. (1979) `Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Prednisone and Prednisolone’, Clin. Pharmacokinet., 4, 111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Swartz, S.L. and Dluhy, R.G. (1978) ‘Corticosteroids: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Use’, Drugs, 16, 235–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar

The Thyroid

  1. Brennan, M.D. (1980) `Clinical Pharmacology: Thyroid Hormones’, Mayo Clin. Proc, 15, 33–44Google Scholar
  2. Collen, RJ., Landau, E.M., Kaplan, S.A. and Lippe, B.M. (1980) `Remission Rates of Children and Adolescents Treated with Anti-thyroid Drugs’, Pediatrics, 65, 550–556Google Scholar
  3. Skellern, G.G., Knight, B.I., Low, C.K.L., Alexander, W.D., McLarty, D.G. and Kalk, W.J. (1980) `The Pharmacokinetics of Methmazole after Oral Administration of Carbimazole and Methimazole in Hyperthyroid Patients’, Br. J. Qin. Pharm, 9, 137–143Google Scholar

The Endocrine Pancreas

  1. Alford, F.J., Bloom, S.R. and Nabarro, J.D.N. (1976) `Glucagon Metabolism in Man. Studies on the Metabolic Clearance Rate and Plasma Acute Disappearance Time of Glucagon in Normal and Diabetic Subjects’, J. Clin. Endocr, 42, 830–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Frost, D.P., Srivastava, M.C., Jones, R.H., Nabarro, J.D.N. and Sonksen, P.H. (1973) `The Kinetics of Insulin Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus’, Postgrad. Med. J, (December suppl.), 49, 949–954Google Scholar
  3. Kllendorf, I. and Bojsen, J. (1982) `Kinetics of Subcutaneous NPH Insulin in Diabetes’, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther, 31, 494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kovisto, V. and Felig, P. (1980) `Alterations in Insulin Absorption and in Blood Glucose Control Associated with Varying Insulin Injection Sites in Diabetic Patients’, Ann. Intern. Med, 92, 59–61Google Scholar
  5. Ungar, R.H. and Orci, L. (1981) `Glucagon and the A-cell: Physiology and Pathophysiology’, New Engl. J. Med, 304, 1518–1524CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Anabolic Steroids

  1. Kelly, V.C. and Ruvalcaba, R.H.A. (1982) `Use of Anabolic Agents in Treatment of Short Children’, Clin. Endoc. Metab, 11, 26–39Google Scholar
  2. Shahidi, N.T. (1973) `Androgens and Erythropoiesis’, New Engl. J. Med, 289, 72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Calcium Metabolism

  1. Chan, J.C.M., Oldham, S.B. and DeLuca, H.F. (1977) `Effectiveness of la-Hydroxy Vitamin D3 in Children with Renal Osteodystrophy Associated with Hemodialysis’, J. Pediat, 90, 820–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. DeLuca, H.F. (1980) `Vitamin D Revisited—1980’, Clin. Endoc. Metab, 9, 3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Norman, M.W. (1982) `Vitamin D in Bone Disease’, Pediat. Clin. N. Am, 29, 947–971Google Scholar
  4. Reeve, J. (1979) `Therapeutic Applications of Vitamin D Analogues’, Br. Med. J., ii, 888–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© George M. Maxwell 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • George M. Maxwell
    • 1
  1. 1.University of AdelaideAustralia

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