Crystallization of the Oxides of Titanium Subgroup Metals
In this article we shall generalize a number of investigations which have been made into the crystallization of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium oxides under hydrothermal conditions. There are two main reasons for carrying out such investigations. Firstly, the interest currently expressed by physicists in these compounds calls for constant research into methods of producing highquality single crystals. The high melting points of ZrO2 and HfO2 (2700 and 2780°C ) makes it difficult to grow the corresponding crystals directly from the melt. The crystallization of rutile by the Verneuil method is frequently employed, but unfortunately this method often yields crystals of a nonstoichiometric nature. Attempts have accordingly been made at one time and another to grow zirconium, hafnium, and titanium oxides at lower temperatures by using various fluxes.
KeywordsHydrothermal Condition Fluoride Solution Hydrolysis Constant Hafnium Oxide Spontaneous Crystallization
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