Advertisement

Crystallization of the Oxides of Titanium Subgroup Metals

  • V. A. Kuznetsov
Part of the Studies in Soviet Science book series (STSS)

Abstract

In this article we shall generalize a number of investigations which have been made into the crystallization of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium oxides under hydrothermal conditions. There are two main reasons for carrying out such investigations. Firstly, the interest currently expressed by physicists in these compounds calls for constant research into methods of producing highquality single crystals. The high melting points of ZrO2 and HfO2 (2700 and 2780°C [1]) makes it difficult to grow the corresponding crystals directly from the melt. The crystallization of rutile by the Verneuil method is frequently employed, but unfortunately this method often yields crystals of a nonstoichiometric nature. Attempts have accordingly been made at one time and another to grow zirconium, hafnium, and titanium oxides at lower temperatures by using various fluxes.

Keywords

Hydrothermal Condition Fluoride Solution Hydrolysis Constant Hafnium Oxide Spontaneous Crystallization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Handbook of Chemistry [in Russian], Vol. 2, Izd. Khimiya (1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. W. Newkirk and D. K. Smith, Amer. Mineral., 50: 44 (1955).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Doelter, Handbuch der Mineral-Chemie, Vol. 4, Pt. 1, T. Steinkopff, Vienna, (1926).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. B. Chase and J. A. Osmer, Amer. Mineral., 51: 1808 (1966).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Mergault and G. Blanche, Compt. Rend., 238: 914 (1954).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    T. Sugai, S. Hesegawa, and G. Ohara, J. Appl. Phys. Japan, 6: 901 (1967).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. D. Dena, E. S. Dena, Ch. Pelach, G. Berman, and K. Frondel’, Sistema Mineralogii, 1 (2): 94 (1951).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. N. Anikin, I. A. Naumova, and G. V. Rumyantseva, Kristallografiya, 10: 231 (1965).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. L. Harvill and R. Roy, J. Phys. Chem. Solids, Suppl. 1, p. 563 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Ryss, Chemistry of Fluorine and Its Inorganic Compounds [in Russian], Goshimizdat (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. A. Kuznetsov, this volume, p. 81.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Consultants Bureau, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Kuznetsov

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations