Hydrothermal Synthesis of Germanates

  • I. P. Kuz’mina
  • B. N. Litvin
  • V. S. Kurazhkovskaya
Part of the Studies in Soviet Science book series (STSS)


The limits of phase formation and crystallization in the Na2O-ZnO-GeO2-H2O system at high temperatures and pressures was discussed earlier [1]. The fundamental possibility of synthesizing germanates of various compositions under hydrothermal conditions was clearly indicated. In order to obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the processes taking place in this complex system we initiated an investigation into phase formation in the Na2O-GeO2-H2O, Na2O-ZnO-GeO2-H2O systems.


Zinc Oxide Hydrothermal Condition Alkali Solution Caustic Soda Aqua Complex 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    I. P. Kuz’mina, O. K. Mel’nikov, and B. N. Litvin, in: Hydrothermal Synthesis of Crystals (A. N. Lobachev, ed.) [in Russian], Izd. Nauka (1968), p. 141.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Nowotny, Uspekhi Khim., 27: 997 (1958).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. N. Litvin and O. K. Mel’nikov, Kristallografiya, 14: 101 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. A. Laudise, E. D. Kolb, and A. J. Caporaso, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 47: 9 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. F. Gillebrand, R. É. Lendal’, R. A. Brait, and D. I. Gofman, Practical Handbook on Inorganic Analysis [in Russian], Goskhimizdat (1960), p. 320.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yu. N. Knipovich and Yu. V. Morachevskii, Analysis of Raw Minerals [in Russian], Goskhimizdat (1959), p. 481.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. P. Dirkse, J. Electrochem. Soc., 101: 328 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. I. Treadford, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 76: 6022 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. V. Belov, Miner. Sb., No. 15, Note 72 (1961).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. A. Laudise, Amer. Mineral., 48: 642 (1963).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H., Brintzinger, Z. Anorg. Chem., 256: 98 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. A. Knyazev, I. A. Kakovskii, and Yu. B. Kholmanskikh, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 10: 2698 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. A. Nazarenko and A. M. Andrianov, Uspekhi Khim., 34: 8 (1965).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V. A. Vekhov, B. S. Vitukhnovskaya, and R. F. Doronkina, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 11: 237 (1966).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    E. A. Knyazev and S. V. Borisova, Zh. Neorg. Khim., 12: 2785 (1967).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. K. Ailer, Colloidal Chemistry of Silica and Silicates [in Russian], Gosstroiizdat (1959).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. R. Shaw, J. F. Corwin, and J. W. Edwards, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 80: 1536 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. F. White, E. R. Shaw, J. W. Edwards, and A. Pabst, Analyt. Chem. 31: 315 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Ingri and G. Kundgren, Arkiv. Kemi, 18: 479 (1961).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. K. Murthy and J. Aguayo, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 47: 444 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Wittman and P. Papamantellos, Monatsh. Chem., 91: 855 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    N. Ingri and G. Lundgren, Acta Chem. Scand., 17: 617 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. N. Laubengauer and D. S. Morton, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 54: 2303 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. L. Harwill and R. Roy, Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 44: 297 (1965).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. P. Solov’eva and V. V. Bakalin, Kristallografiya, 12: 591 (1967).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Consultants Bureau, New York 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. P. Kuz’mina
  • B. N. Litvin
  • V. S. Kurazhkovskaya

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations