Are Tannins Resistance Factors Against Rust Fungi?

  • Charles H. Walkinshaw


Histological observations were made of pine callus cultures and seedlings inoculated with Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. Growth of fungus in susceptible tissues caused cellular disruption, which was severe during sporulation of the fungus. Tannin deposition appeared closely related to invasion of host cells by fungus. Tannin synthesis was associated with membrane activity and increased starch accumulation. Although tannin accumulated in resistant tissues, initial events of resistance were changes in cell volume, decreases in stain affinity for host nuclei, and a deterioration of fungal hyphae. Thus, tannin accumulation was not found to play a primary role in resistance.


Rust Resistance Rust Fungus Loose Smut Tannin Cell Fusiform Rust 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Miller, T.; Schmidt, R.A. A new approach to forest pest management. Plant Disease 71: 204 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Phelps, W.R. Evaluation of fusiform rust incidence on loblolly and slash pine in the south. Plant Disease Reporter 58: 1137 (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Froelich, R.C. Sawtimber as an alternative forest management strategy for sites with a high fusiform rust hazard. South. J. Appl. For. 11: 228 (1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Powers, H.R., Jr.; McClure, J.P.; Knight, H.A.; Dutrow, G.F. Incidence and financial impact of fusiform rust in the south. J. For. 72: 398 (1974).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arora, Y.K.; Wagle, D.S. Interrelationship between peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase activities, and phenolic content of wheat for resistance to loose smut. Biochem. Phys. Pflanzen 180: 75 (1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Friend, J. Phenolic substances and plant disease. In: Swain, T.; Harborne, J.B.; Van Sumere, C.F. (eds.) Biochemistry of Plant Phenolics. Plenum Publishing Company, New York, pp. 557–588 (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kemp, M.S.; Burden, R.S. Phytoalexins and stress metabolites in the sapwood of trees. Phytochemistry 25: 1261 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Misaghi, I.J. Physiology and Biochemistry of Plant-Pathogen Interactions. Plenum Publishing Company, New York, 287 pp. (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goodman, R.N.; Kiraly Z.; Wood, K.R. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Disease. University of Missouri Press, Columbia. 433 p.. (1986).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robb, J.; Harvey, A.E.; Shaw, M. Ultrastructure of tissue cultures of Pinns monticolainfected by Cronartium ribicola. I. Prepentration host changes. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 5: 1 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Walkinshaw, C.H. Cell necrosis and fungus content in fusiform rust-infected loblolly, longleaf, and slash pine seedlings. Phytopathology 68: 1705 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laird, P.P.; Phelps, W.R. A rapid method for mass screening of loblolly and slash pine seedlings for resistance to fusiform rust. Plant Dis. Report. 59: 238 (1975).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walkinshaw, C.H.; Dell, T.R.; Hubbard, S.D. Predicting field performance of slash pine families from inoculated greenhouse seedlings. USDA Forest Service Research Paper SO-160; Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans; 6 pp. (1980).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall, R.H.; Baur, P.S.; Walkinshaw, C.H. Variability in oxygen consumption and cell morphology in slash pine tissue cultures. Forest Sci. 18: 298 (1972).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walkinshaw, C.H.; Bey, C.F. Reaction of field-resistant slash pines to selected isolates of Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme. Phytopathology 71: 1090 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Griggs, M.M.; Walkinshaw, C.H. Diallel analysis of genetic resistance to Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme in slash pine. Phytopathology 72: 816 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walkinshaw, C.H.; Ammon, V.D.; Jewell, F.F. Sr. Comparison of slash pine seedlings of varying fusiform rust resistance. In: Barrows-Broaddus, J; Powers, H.R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Rusts of Hard Pines Working Party Conference, 52.06–10. pp. 67–87 (1984).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jewell, F.F.; True, R.P.; Mallett, S.L. Histology of Cronartium fusiformein slash pine seedlings. Phytopathology 52: 850 (1962).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mace, M.E.; Howell, C.R. Histochemistry and identification of condensed tannin precursors in roots of cotton seedlings. Can. J. Bot. 52: 2423 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Croley, T.E.; Walkinshaw, C.H.; Baur, P.S.; Scholes, V.E. Papanicolaou staining technique for plant cells. Stain Technol. 48: 259 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hillis, W.E. Biosynthesis of Tannins. In: Higuchi, T. (ed.) Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood Components. Academic Press, Inc.; New York, pp. 325–347 (1985).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Baur, P.S.; Walkinshaw, C.H. Fine structure of tannin accumulations in callus cultures of Pinus elliottii(slash pine). Can. J. Bot. 52: 615 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parham, R.A.; Kaustinen, H.M. On the site of tannin synthesis in plant cells. Bot. Gaz. 138: 465 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robinson, D.G. Plant Membranes. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 305 pp. (1985).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cowles, J.R.; Fowler, J.A.; Walkinshaw, C.H. Comparison of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, pyruvate kinase activity, and polyphenol content in physiologically different pine callus tissue. Physiol. Plant. 33: 177 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stafford, H.A. Compartmentation in natural product biosynthesis by multienzyme complexes. In: Conn, E. (ed.) The Biochemistry of Plants, Academic Press. New York, pp. 117–137 (1981).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anderson, R.G.W.; Orci, L. A view of acidic intracellular compartments. J. Cell Biol. 106: 539 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hagerman, A.E.; Robbins, C.T. Implications of soluble tannin-protein complexes for tannin analysis and plant defense mechanisms. J. Chem. Ecol. 13: 1243 (1987).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beart, J.E.; Lilley, T.H.; Haslam, E. Plant polyphenols-Secondary metabolism and chemical defense: some observations. Phytochemistry 24: 33 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pascholati, S.F.; Heim, D; Nicholson, R.L. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and susceptibility of the maize mesocotyl to Helminthosporium maydis. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 27: 395 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hedrick, S.A.; Bell, J.N.; Boller, T.; Lamb, C.J. Chitinase cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor, wounding and infection. Plant Physiol. 86: 182 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harvey, A.E.; Chakravorty, A.K.; Shaw, M.; Scrubb, L.A. Changes in ribonuclease activity in Ribes leaves and pine tissue culture infected with blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 4: 359 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gahan, P.B. Cell senescence and death in plants. In: Bowen, I.D.; Lockshin, R.A. (eds.) Cell Death in Biology and Pathology. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 145–169 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shaw, M. Cell biological aspects of host-parasite relations of obligate fungal parasites. Can. J. Bot. 45: 1205 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abu-Zinada; A. -A.H.; Cobb, A.; Boulter, D. An electron-microscopic study of the effects of parasite interaction between Vicia faba L. and Uromyces fabae. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 5: 113 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gray, D.J.; Amerson, H.V. In vitro resistance of embryos of Pinus taeda to Cronartium quercuumf. sp. fusiforme: ultrastructure and histology. Phytopathology 73:1492 (1983).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Barnett, J.R. Changes in the distribution of plasmodesmata in developing fibre-tracheid pit membranes of Sorbus aucuparia L. Ann. Bot. 59: 269 (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles H. Walkinshaw
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Forest Experiment StationUSDA Forest ServiceGulfportUSA

Personalised recommendations