Analytical Methods: An Overview

  • Joseph J. Karchesy


A wide variety of analytical methods is currently being used to provide a diversity of information about proanthocyanidins. Rapid advances are being made in the ability to determine structure and conformation due to recent developments in NMR, MS, and other spectrometric tech­niques. In the future, these methods will play major roles in the study of conformational changes caused by associations with proteins, metals, and carbohydrates. More needs to be learned about the structure of phlobaphenes, the nature of the molecules that serve as building blocks, and the reaction mechanisms that lead to phlobaphene formation. Ab­sence of effective chromatographic separation methods for phlobaphene components is a limiting factor. Isolations of proanthocyanidins are pri­marily done using low-pressure column chromatography with a variety of gel types. HPLC is presently under-utilized for such purposes, and metal-free HPLC columns need to be investigated because of the metal complexing ability of proanthocyanidins. Quantitative analysis of con­densed tannins can sometimes suffer from lack of reproducibility due to details of the procedure, sample collection, and handling.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Condensed Tannin Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Liquid Matrix Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Stenhouse, J. XXIII. On some astringent substances as sources of pyrogallic acid. Memoirs and Proc. of the Chem. Soc. London 1: 132 (1843).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rabenstein, D.L.; Guo, W. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Anal. Chem. 60: 1R (1988).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burlingame, A.L.; Maltby, D.; Russell, D.H.; Holland, P.T. Mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 60: 249R (1988).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schiff, D.E.; Verkade, J.G.; Metzler, R.M.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G. Determination of alcohols, phenols, and carboxylic acids using P-31 NMR spectroscopy. Appl. Spectr. 40:348 (1986) .Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karchesy, J.J.; Hemingway, R.W.; Foo, Y.L.; Barofsky, E.; Barofsky, D.F. Sequencing procyanidin oligomers by fast atom bombardment mass spectometry. Anal. Chem. 58: 2563 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McLafferty, F.W. (ed.) Tandem Mass Spectometry. Wiley-Interscience, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gross, M.L.; Jensen, N.J.; Lippstreu-Fisher, D.L.; Tomer, K.B. Tandem mass spectrometry and fourier transform mass spectrometry for analysis of biomolecules, In: Burlingame, A.L.; Castagnoli, N. Sr. (eds.) Mass Spectrometry in the Health and Life Sciences. Elsevier, New York. (1985).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karchesy, J.J.; Foo, L.Y.; Barofsky, E.; Arborgast, B.; Barofsky, D.F. Negative ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of procyanidin oligomers. J. Wood Chem. Technol. (submitted).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karchesy, J.J.; Foo, L.Y.; Hemingway, R.W.; Barofsky, E.; Barofsky, D.F. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives. (in press). Wood and Fiber Science 21: (1989).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bae, Y.S. Douglas-fir inner bark procyanidins: Sulfonation, isolation and characterization. Ph.D. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon (1989).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fenselau, C. Fast atom bombardment and middle molecule mass spectrometry. J. Nat. Prod. 47: 215 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dass C.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Israel, M.; Desideris, D.M. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric analysis of anthracyclines and anthracyclinones. Biomed. and Environ. Mass Spectrom. 17: 37 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Foo, L.Y.; Karchesy, J.J. Pseudotsuganol, a biphenyl-linked pinoresinol-dihydroquercetin from Douglas-fir bark: Isolation of the first true flavonolignan. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (in press).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Porter, L.J.; Hrstich, L.N.; Chan, B.G. The conversion of procyanidins and prodelphinidins to cyanidin and delphinidin. Phytochemistry 25: 223 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Broadhurst, R.B.; Jones, W.T. Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. J. Sci. Ed. Agric. 29: 788 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pigman, W.; Anderson F.; Fischer, R.; Buchanan, M.; Browning, B.L. Color precursors in spruce and western hemlock woods and inner barks. Tappi 36: 4 (1953).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Swain, T.; Goldstein, J.L. The quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds. In: Pridham, J.B. (ed.) Methods in Polyphenol Chemistry. Pergamon Press, New York (1964).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Foo, L.Y.; Porter, L.J. The phytochemistry of proanthocyanidin polymers. Phytochemistry 19: 1747 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph J. Karchesy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest ProductsOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations