Animal Sonar pp 477-481 | Cite as

Echoes of Fluttering Insects

  • Rudi Kober
Part of the NATO ASI Science book series (NSSA, volume 156)


Bats with long cf-calls can not only detect their prey in strong background clutter but can also distinguish some insect species from others (Schnitzler and Henson, 1980; Trappe, 1982; von der Emde, this conference). What parameters do these bats use to classify their prey and — first of all — what are the echo parameters which allow this classification.


Carrier Frequency Wing Length Angular Orientation Wing Beat Wing Movement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Machmerth, H., Theiss, D., and Schnitzler H.-U., 1975, Konstruktion eines Luftultraschallgebers mit konstantem Frequenzgang im Bereich von 15 KHz bis 130 KHz., Acoustica 34, 81 - 85.Google Scholar
  2. Schnitzler, H.-U., Henson, O. W., Jr., 1980, Performance of airborne animal sonar systems: I. Microchiroptera, in: Animal sonar systems. Nato advanced study institute series (A) 28, 109-181, R.-G. Busnel, and J. F. Fish, ed., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Schnitzler, H.-U., Menne, D., Kober, R., and Heblich, K., 1983, The acoustical image of fluttering insects in echolocating bats, in: Neurophysiology and behavioral physiology, F. Huber, and H. Markl, ed., Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  4. Trappe, M., 1982, Verhalten und Echoortung der Grossen Hufeisennase beim Beutefang., Dissertation, University of Tübingen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rudi Kober
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrbereich ZoophysiologieUniversity of TübingenTübingenFederal Republic of Germany

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