1/f Noise in Random Systems: Recent Progress

  • R. Rammal
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 167)


Most electrical conductors exhibit low frequency electrical noise when subjected to a constant bias. This so called “excess” or “1/f noise” depends on the bias and, at sufficiently low frequencies, can be much larger than the usual Nyquist-Johnson equilibrium noise. The origin of this noise, and of its particular inverse frequency dependence (1/f), has been a mystery for a number of years.1 Many models have been proposed, but no universal mechanism has been found. The evidence seems to suggest that non diffusive defect motion is at the origin of the phenomenon in many metal films (see below section 5), but in certain cases, other mechanisms must be invoked.2 For example, in niobium films, the resistance is modulated by hydrogen impurity diffusion while in superconducting films near the transition, temperature diffusion is involved.3 In the latter two cases the spectrum of fluctuations does not have the canonical 1/f dependence, but is nevertheless a form of low-frequency noise, which is commonly referred to as “diffusion noise”.


Spin Glass Noise Spectrum Effective Medium Theory Voltage Fluctuation Magnetic Fluctuation 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rammal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.AT&T Bell LaboratoriesMurray HillUSA
  2. 2.CRTBT-CNRSGrenobleFrance

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