Geophysical Applications of High Pressure Research

  • W. A. Bassett

Abstract

One of the principal objectives of geophysics is to understand the constitution and evolution of the Earth. Since all but a very samll portion of the Earth is at very high pressures and temperatures, research in the behavior of materials at high pressures and temperatures plays a major role in our understanding of this subject. Our science is like putting together a jigsaw puzzle. We work with pieces that come from the geophysicists, pieces like seismic velocities, angular momentum, heat flow and geomagnetism. To these we add pieces from the experimentalists such as phase relationships, elastic properties, electrical properties, and chemical reactions at high pressures and temperatures. At first only a partial picture of the Earth’s interior existed, but as more information is added the picture becomes clearer. In this respect, our science is similar to other branches of science. Most scientific research consists of an endeavor to create a clear picture of those things that are not readily accessible because they are far away or very small or took place a long time ago or are simply located where you can’t get to them as with the Earth’s interior. Piecing together puzzles is a very human trait and it seems to be the driving force behind much of our scientific research.

Keywords

Periclase Hydration Carbide Silicate Brittle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    F. Bundy, Science 37, 1055 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Birch, J. Geophys. Res. 57, 227 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. G. McQueen and S. P. Marsh, in Handbook of Physical Constants, S. P. Clark, Jr., ed., Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., Vol. 97 (1966),P 153.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. E. Ringwood, Composition and Petrology of the Earth's Mantle, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York (1975).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. A. Bassett and L. C. Ming, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 6, 154 (1972).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. C. Ming and W. A. Bassett, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 25, 68 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. G. Liu, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 11, 289 (1976).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Ito, Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 72 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. G. Liu, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. 36, 237 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. C. Liebermann, L.E.A. Jones, and A. E. Ringwood, Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors 14, 165 (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Akimoto, T. Yagi, and K. Inoue, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 585.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Akimoto, M. Akaogi, K. Kawada, and O. Nishizawa, in Geophysics of the Pacific Ocean Basin and Its Margins, Geophysical Monograph, Vol. 19, American Geophysical Union (1976), p. 399.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. M. Bell, H. K. Mao, R. A. Weeks, and A. VanValkenburg, in Annual Report of the Director, Vol. 75, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook (1976), p. 515.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. K. Mao, in Annual Report of the Director, Vol. 73, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook (1974), p. 510.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. E. Ringwood, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 58, 519 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. M. Sung and R. G. Burns, Tectonophysics 31,)7(1976).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Akimoto, K. Yamamoto, and K. Aoki, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 163.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    I. Kushiro, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 25.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Sato, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 307.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Olinger, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press, New York (1977), p. 325, 335.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. R. Wilburn and W. A. Bassett, High Temp.-High Pressures 8, 343 (1976).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Yagi, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 58, 492 (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. J. Weidner, K. Swyler, and H. R. Carleton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 189 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    C.H. Whitfield, E. M. Brody, and W. A. Bassett, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 942 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. K. Singh and G. C. Kennedy, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3337 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. L. Kinsland and W. A. Bassett, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 978 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. M. Sung, G. Goetze, and H. K. Mao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1386 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. K. Mao, in The Physics and Chemistry of Minerals and Rocks, R. G. Strens, ed., John Wiley and Sons (1976), p. 573.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. K. Mao and P. M. Bell, in High-Pressure Research, Applications in Geophysics, M. H. Manghnani and S. Akimoto, editors, Academic Press (1977), p. 493.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. E. Weir, G. J. Piermarini, and S. Block, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 1133 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. M. Hazen, EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 58, 518 (1977).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. K. Mao and P. M. Bell, in Annual Report of the Director, Vol. 75, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook (1976), p. 827.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. G. Liu, Geophys. J. Astr. Soc. 48, 53 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Bassett
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations