Oxygen Transport to Renal Tissue: Effect of Oxygen Carriers

  • G. Gronow
  • Th. Kelting
  • Ch. Skrezek
  • J. v.d. Plas
  • J. C. Bakker
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 215)


The isolated perfused rat kidney introduced by Weiss and colleagues in 1959 has become a commonly used tool in the field of renal physiology and pharmacology (Weiss, Passow and Rothstein, 1959; Little and Cohen, 1974; Ross, 1978; Maack, 1986). In view of technical complications such as blood clotting and the release of vasoactive factors most authors preferred a hyperoxygenated (PO2~660 mmHg) balanced salt solution instead of blood as a perfusate. However, recent experiments with the isolated Ringer-perfused rat kidney indicate that oxygen transport to renal tissue has become a central question: due to a steep gradient of oxygen partial pressure in the outer medullary region of mammalian kidneys (Leichtweiss et al., 1969; Baumgartl et al., 1972) the poor oxygen binding capacity of hyperoxygenated salt solutions induced functional and morphological lesions in distinct renal tissue zones (Alcorn et al., 1981; Brezis et al., 1984; Schurek and Kriz, 1985). The aim of the present experiments was to compare the effects of three different oxygen carriers on function and tissue integrity of the isolated perfused rat kidney. The following served as oxygen carriers: a) coupled haemoglobin, b) washed erythrocytes, and c) perfluorocarbons. Perfusions performed with hyperoxygenated Ringer solutions (PO2~660 mmHg) served as a control. Our data indicate that renal function (perfusion flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, absolute and fractional Na+ reabsorption) as well as parameters of tissue integrity (i.e. the loss of enzymes, and tissue water content) are maintained best with an erythrocyte suspension and, for a limited time period, with coupled haemoglobin in the perfusate. They are reasonably maintained during Ringer perfusion, but are severely impaired in the presence of a perfluorocarbon emulsion.


Oxygen Transport Oxygen Carrier Erythrocyte Suspension Blood Substitute Tissue Water Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcorn, D., Emslie, K.R., Ross, B.D., Ryan, G.B. and Tange, J.D. (1981). Selective distal nephron damage during isolated kidney perfusion. Kidney Int. 19, 638–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakker, J.C., Plas, J. v.d., Bleeker, W.K., De Vries-Van Rossen, A., Schoester, M., Brummelhuis, H.G.J. and Loos, J.A. (1984). Oxygen affinity of hemoglobin solutions modified by coupling to PLP or NFPLP and the effects on tissue oxygenation. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-VI. Eds Bruley, D., Bicher, H.I. and Reneau, D., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 180, 345–356 ).Google Scholar
  3. Baumgartl, H., Leichtweiss, H.-P., Lubbers, D.W., Weiss, Ch. and Huland, H. (1972). The oxygen supply of the dog kidney: measurements of intrarenal p02. Microvasc. Res. 4, 247–257.Google Scholar
  4. Brezis, M., Rosen, S., Silva, P. and Epstein, F.H. (1984). Selective vulnerability of the medullary thick ascending limb to anoxia in the isolated perfused rat kidney. J. Clin. Invest. 73, 182–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bucala, R., Kawakami, M. and Cerami, A. (1983). Cytotoxicity of a perfluorocarbon blood substitute to macrophages in vitro. Science, 220, 965–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, J.J. (1979). Is the function of the renal papilla coupled exclusively to an anaerobic pattern of metabolism ? Am. J. Physiol. 236, F423–F433.Google Scholar
  7. Faithfull, N.S., Fennema, M., Erdmann, W., Lapin, R., Smith, A.R., Van Alphen, W., Essed, C.E. and Trouwborst, A. (1984). Tissue oxygenation by fluorocarbons. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-VI. Eds Bruley, D., Bicher, H.I. and Reneau, D., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 180, 569–580 ).Google Scholar
  8. Franke, H. and Weiss, Ch. (1976). The 02 supply of the isolated cell-free perfused rat kidney. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-II. Eds Grote, J., Reneau, D. and Thews, G., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 75, 425–431 ).Google Scholar
  9. Gronow, G.H. J., Benk, P., Franke, H. (1984). Effect of anaerobic substrates on post-anoxic cellular functions in isolated tubular segments of rat kidney cortex. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-VI. Eds Bruley, D., Bicher, H.I. and Reneau, D., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 180, 403–410 ).Google Scholar
  10. Gronow, G.H.J. and Cohen, J.J. (1984). Substrate support for renal functions during hypoxia in the perfused rat kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 247, F618–F631.Google Scholar
  11. Gronow, G.H.J. and Kossman, H. (1985). Perfusate oxygenation and renal function in the isolated rat kidney. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-VII. Eds Kreuzer, F., Cain, S.M., Turek, Z. and Goldstick, T.K., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 191, 675–682 ).Google Scholar
  12. Gronow, G., Meya, F. and Weiss, Ch. (1984). Studies on the ability of kidney cells to recover after periods of anoxia. In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue-V. Eds Lubbers, D.W, Acker, H., Leniger-Follert, E. and Goldstick, T.K., Plenum Press, New York and London, ( Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 169, 589–595 ).Google Scholar
  13. Kahn, R.A., Allen, R.W. and Baldassare, J. (1985). Alternate sources and substitutes for therapeutic blood components. Blood, 66, 1–12.Google Scholar
  14. Kriz, W. (1981). Structural organization of the renal medulla; comparative and functional aspects. Am. J. Physiol. 241, R3–R16.Google Scholar
  15. Lane, T.A. and Lamkin, G.E. (1984). Paralysis of phagocyte migration due to an artificial blood substitute. Blood, 64, 400–405.Google Scholar
  16. Leichtweiss, H.P., Lubbers, D.W., Weiss, Ch., Baumgartl, H. and Reschke,W. (1969). The oxygen supply of the rat kidney: measurements of intrarenal p02. Pflugers Arch. 309, 328–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levinski, N.G., Alexander, E.A. and Venkatachalam, M.A. (1981). Acute renal failure. In: The Kidney, vol. 1. Eds Brenner, B.M. and Rector, F.C., W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 1181–1236.Google Scholar
  18. Little, J.R. and Cohen, J.J. (1974). Effect of albumin concentration on function of isolated perfused kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 226, 512–517.Google Scholar
  19. Lowe, K.C. and Bollands, A.D. (1985). Physiological effects of perfluorocarbon blood substitutes. Med. Lab. Sci. 42, 367–375.Google Scholar
  20. Maack, Th. (1986). Renal clearance and isolated kidney perfusion technique. Kidney Int. 30, 142–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maruhn, D. (1976). Rapid colorimetric assay of %3-galactosidase and N-acetyl- /3 -glucosaminidase in human urine. Clin. Chim. Acta, 73, 453–461.Google Scholar
  22. Nanney, L., Fink, L.M. and Virmani, R. (1984). Perfluorochemicals: morphologic changes in infused liver, spleen, lung and kidney of rabbits. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 108, 631–637.Google Scholar
  23. Ross, B.D. (1978). The isolated perfused rat kidney. Clin. Sci. Molec. Med. 55, 513–521.Google Scholar
  24. Ruland, O., Hauss, J., Spiegel, H.-U. and Schoenleben, F.H. (1983). Comparative pO2 histograms and other parameters in canine kidneys during perfusion with Oxypherol. In: Advances in Blood Substitute Research. Eds Bolin, R.B., Geyer, R.P. and Nemo, G.J., Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 221–225.Google Scholar
  25. Schurek, H.-J. and Alt, J.M. (1981). Effect of albumin on the function of perfused rat kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 240, F569–F576.Google Scholar
  26. Schurek, H.-J. and Kriz, W. (1985). Morphologic and functional evidence deficiency in the isolated perfused kidney. Lab. Invest. 53, 145–155.Google Scholar
  27. Schurek, J.W., Besarab, A., Pomerantz, P.P. and De Guzman, A. (1981). Erythrocytes and globulin on renal functions of the isolated Am. J. Physiol. 241, F139–F150.Google Scholar
  28. Weiss, Ch., Passow, H. and Rothstein, A. (1959). Autoregulation of blood flow in isolated rat kidney, in the absence of red cells. Am. J. Physiol. 196, 1115–1118.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Gronow
    • 1
  • Th. Kelting
    • 1
  • Ch. Skrezek
    • 1
  • J. v.d. Plas
    • 2
  • J. C. Bakker
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Central LaboratoryNetherlands Red CrossAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations