Advertisement

Emulsified Perfluorochemicals as Physiological Oxygen-Transport Fluids: Assessment of a Novel Formulation

  • S. K. Sharma
  • A. D. Bollands
  • S. S. Davis
  • K. C. Lowe
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 215)

Abstract

Emulsions of perfluorochemicals (PFC) in isotonic electrolyte solutions are known to have properties which make them attractive as physiological oxygen-transport fluids. Such properties include: the ability to dissolve substantial volumes of oxygen and other respiratory gases; and their small particle sizes (< 0.25 µm) which enable them to pass through capillary beds. In addition, due to the strength of the carbon-fluorine bond (ca. 116 kcal/mol), the PFC themselves are generally regarded as being both chemically and biologically inert (Riess and Le Blanc, 1982). Some of the physiological effects of emulsified PFC have been studied in several species and also in experiments using mammalian cells in culture (Lowe and Bollands, 1985; Lowe, 1986).

Keywords

Mesenteric Lymph Node Tissue Weight Oxygen Carrier Ostwald Ripening Ethyl Palmitate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bollands, A.D. and Lowe, K.C. (1986a). Responses of rat lymphoid tissue to a perfluorocarbon blood substitute. Br.J.Pharmac. 87, 118 P.Google Scholar
  2. Bollands, A.D. and Lowe, K.C. (1986b). Effects of a perfluorocarbon emulsion, Fluosol-DA on rat lymphoid tissue and immunological competence. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 85C, 309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bollands, A.D. and Lowe, K.C. (1986c). Comparative effects of emulsified perfluorocarbons on lymphoid tissue in rodents. Br.J.Pharmac. 89, 664 P.Google Scholar
  4. Bollands, A.D. and Lowe, K.C. (1987a). Lymphoid tissue responses to perfluorocarbon emulsion in mice. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Bollands, A.D. and Lowe, K.C. (1987b). Lymphoid tissue responses to Fluosol-DA in rats: time course effects relative to immunological challenge. Br.J.Pharmac. (in press).Google Scholar
  6. Caiazza, S., Fanizza, M. and Ferrari, M. (1984). Fluosol-43 particle localization pattern in target organs of rats. Virchows Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. A. 404, 127–137.Google Scholar
  7. Castro, O., Nesbitt, A.E. and Lyles, D. (1984). Effect of a perfluorocarbon emulsion (Fluosol-DA) on reticuloendothelial system clearance function. Am. J. Hemat. 16, 15–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro, O., Reindorf, C.A., Socha, W.W. and Rowe, A.W. (1983). Perfluorocarbon enhancement of heterologous red cell survival: a reticuloendothelial block effect ? Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 70, 88–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, S.S., Round, H.P. and Purewal, T.S. (1981). Ostwald Ripening of emulsion systems. An explanation for the effect of an added third component. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 80, 508–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gronow, G., Kelting, Th., Skrezek, Ch., Plas, J. v.d. and Bakker, J.C. (1987). Oxygen transport to renal tissue: effect of oxygen carriers. This volume.Google Scholar
  11. Higuchi, W.I. and Misra, J. (1962). Physical degradation of emulsions via the molecular diffusion route and the possible prevention thereof. J. Pharm. Sci. 51, 459–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liftschitz, I.M. and Slezov, V.V. (1959). Kinetics of diffusive decomposition of supersaturated solid solutions. Sov. Phys. JETP, 35, 331–339.Google Scholar
  13. Lowe, K.C. (1986). Blood transfusion or blood substitution? Vox Sang. 51, 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lowe, K.C. and Bollands, A.D. (1985). Physiological effects of perfluorocarbon blood substitutes. Med. Lab. Sci. 42, 367–375.Google Scholar
  15. Lutz, J. and Metzenauer, P. (1980). Effects of potential blood substitutes (perfluorochemicals) on rat liver and spleen. Pflugers Arch. 387, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lutz, J., Barthel, U. and Metzenauer, P. (1982a). Variation in toxicity of Escherichia coli endotoxin in rats after treatment with perfluorated blood substitutes in mice. Circ. Shock, 9, 99–106.Google Scholar
  17. Lutz, J., Metzenauer, P., Kunz, E. and Heine, W.D. (1982b). Cellular responses after use of perfluorinated blood substitutes. In: Oxygen-carrying Colloidal Blood Substitutes. Eds Frey, R., Beisbarth, H. and Stosseck, K., Zuckschwerdt, Munich, pp. 73–81.Google Scholar
  18. Mason, K.A., Withers, H.R. and Steckel, R.J. (1985). Acute effects of a perfluorochemical oxygen carrier on normal tissues of the mouse. Radiat. Res. 104, 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McCoy, L.E., Becker, C.A., Goodin, T.H. and Barnhart, M.I. (1984). Endothelial responses to perfluorochemical emulsion. Scan. Electron Micros. 6, 311–319.Google Scholar
  20. Mitsuno, T., Ohyanagi, H. and Naito, R. (1982). Clinical studies of a perfluorochemical blood substitute. Ann. Surg. 195, 60–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitsuno, T., Ohyanagi, H., Carrier K. (1984). Development of perfluorochemical emulsion as and Yokoyama, a gas. Artif. Org. 8, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Naito, R. and Yokoyama, K. (1978). Perfluorochemical Blood Substitutes. Technical Information Series No. 5, Green Cross Corporation, Osaka.Google Scholar
  23. Pritchard, D.I. and Eady, R.P. (1980). Some aspects of immunology in the nude rat. In: Immunodeficient Animals for Cancer Research. Ed. Sparrow, S., MacMillan, London, pp. 67–79.Google Scholar
  24. Riess, J.G. and Le Blanc, M. (1982). Solubility and transport phenomena in perfluorochemicals relevant to blood substitution and other biomedical applications. Pure Appl. Chem. 54, 2383–2406.Google Scholar
  25. Shah, K.H., Yamamura, Y. and Usuba, A. (1984). Immunopathologic changes by artificial blood perfluorochemicals. Lab. Invest. 48, 62A.Google Scholar
  26. Sharma, S.K., Davis, S.S. and Lowe, K.C. (1986). Development of stable emulsions of perfluorochemicals for biological applications. Proc. Soc. Chem. Ind., Imperial College, London.Google Scholar
  27. Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1980). Statistical methods. 7th Edn Iowa State College Press, Ames.Google Scholar
  28. Stefaniszyn, H.J., Wynards, J.E. and Salerno, T.A. (1985). Initial Canadian experience with artificial blood (Fluorol-DA 20%) in severely anemic patients. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 26, 337–342.Google Scholar
  29. Tremper, K.K., Friedman, A.E., Levin, E.M., Lapin, R. and Camarillo, D. (1982). The pre-operative treatment of severely anemic patients with a perfluorochemical oxygen-transport fluid. N. Engl. J. Med. 307, 277–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vercellotti, G.M., Hammerschmidt, D.E., Craddock, P.R. and Jacob, H.S. (1982). Activation of plasma complement by perfluorocarbon artificial blood: probable mechanism of adverse pulmonary reactions in treated patients and rationale for corticosteroid prophylaxis. Blood, 59, 1299–1304.Google Scholar
  31. Waxman, K., Tremper, K.K., Cullen, B.F. and Mason, G.R. (1984). Perfluorocarbon infusion in bleeding patients refusing blood transfusions. Arch. Surg. 119, 721–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Sharma
    • 1
  • A. D. Bollands
    • 2
  • S. S. Davis
    • 1
  • K. C. Lowe
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of PharmacyUniversity of NottinghamUniversity Park, NottinghamUK
  2. 2.Departments of ZoologyUniversity of NottinghamUniversity Park, NottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations