Competition and Mutualism

  • James C. Frauenthal
Part of the The Umap Expository Monograph Series book series (UMAP)


Frequently, when two very similar species compete with one another for limited resources (food, territory,...) one of the two ultimately drops out of the competition. Ordinarily, this takes place by having one of the species become locally extinct. The explanation of this phenomenon, which will be developed analytically and graphically, is usually called the Principle of Competitive Exclusion, or Gause’s Principle.


Equilibrium Point Taylor Series Expansion Linearize Stability Analysis Librium Point Competitive Exclusion 
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  1. Gause, G.F., The Struggle for Existence, Hafner, New York 1964.Google Scholar
  2. May, R.M., “Models for Two Interacting Populations”, Chapter 4 of Theoretical Ecology, Principles and Applications, R.M. May (ed), Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1976.Google Scholar
  3. Wilson, E.O. and W.H. Bossert, A Primer of Population Biology, Sinauer Associates, Stamford, CT, 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Education Development Center, Inc. 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • James C. Frauenthal
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Mathematics and StatisticsState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA

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